Cyborg Bibliothèque

Ouvrages publiés à titre de seul auteur

2020

Le dopage est-il éthique?

Missa, J.-N. (2020). Le dopage est-il éthique?: L'Académie en poche, Académie Royale de Belgique.  

 

2009

Le libre examen 

Daled, P.-F. (2009). Le libre examen : la vie d'un principe. Université libre de Bruxelles, 1834-1964. Bruxelles: Éditions Espace de Libertés.  

 

2006

Naissance de la psychiatrie biologique

Missa, J.-N. (2006). Naissance de la psychiatrie biologique: Histoire des traitements des maladies mentales (1920-1960). Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.  

 

2005

Le matérialisme occulté et la genèse du « sensualisme »

Daled, P.-F. (2005). Le matérialisme occulté et la genèse du « sensualisme »: Écrire l'histoire de la philosophie en France. Paris: Vrin.  

 

1998

Spiritualisme et matérialisme au XIXe siècle

Daled, P.-F. (1998). Spiritualisme et matérialisme au XIXe siècle: L'Université libre de Bruxelles et la religion. Bruxelles: Editions de l'Université de Bruxelles.  

 

1993

Mechanisms of Implicit Learning

Cleeremans, A. (1993). Mechanisms of Implicit Learning: Connectionist Models of Sequence Processing. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press/Bradford Books.  

 

L'esprit-cerveau

Missa, J.-N. (1993). L'esprit-cerveau: la philosophie de l'esprit à la lumière des neurosciences. Paris: Vrin.  

 

Ouvrages publiés en collaboration

2019

IMPLICIT LEARNING: 50 Years On

Cleeremans, A., Allakhverdov, V., & Kuvaldina, M. (2019). IMPLICIT LEARNING: 50 Years On. doi:10.4324/9781315628905  

Can we learn without knowing we are learning? To what extent is our behavior influenced by things we fail to perceive? What is the relationship between conscious and unconscious cognition? Implicit Learning: 50 Years On tackles these key questions, fifty years after the publication of Arthur Reber's seminal text. Providing an overview of recent developments in the field, the volume considers questions about the computational foundations of learning, alongside phenomena including conditioning, memory formation and consolidation, associative learning, cognitive development, and language learning. Featuring contributions from international researchers, the book uniquely integrates ‘Western' thinking on implicit learning with insights from a rich Russian research tradition. This approach offers an excellent opportunity to contrast perspectives, to introduce new experimental paradigms, and to contribute to ongoing debates about the very nature of implicit learning. Implicit Learning: 50 Years On is essential reading for students and researchers of consciousness, specifically those interested in implicit learning.

 

2017

ドーピングの哲学 (Philosophie du dopage — publication en langue japonaise)

Missa, J.-N., & Nouvel, P. (2017). ドーピングの哲学 (Philosophie du dopage — publication en langue japonaise): Editeur SHINYOSHA — 323 pages.  

 

2012

The Unity of Consciousness: Binding, Integration, and Dissociation

Cleeremans, A., & Frith, C. (2012). The Unity of Consciousness: Binding, Integration, and Dissociation. doi:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198508571.001.0001  

Consciousness has many elements, from sensory experiences such as vision, audition, and bodily sensation, to non-sensory aspects such as volition, emotion, memory, and thought. The apparent unity of these elements is striking; all are presented to us as experiences of a single subject, and all seem to be contained within a unified field of experience. But this apparent unity raises many questions. How do diverse systems in the brain co-operate to produce a unified experience? Are there conditions under which this unity breaks down? Is conscious experience really unified at all? In recent years, these questions have been addressed by researchers in many fields, including, neurophysiologists and computational modellers, neuropsychology, cognitive psychology, and philosophy.

 

2000

Le principe de précaution

Zaccai, E., & Missa, J.-N. (2000). Le principe de précaution: Significations et conséquences. Bruxelles: Editions de l'Université de Bruxelles.  

LISTE DES AUTEURS: Henri BELVÈZE, chef d'unité à la direction générale pour la santé et la protection des consommateurs de la Commission européenne. Dominique BOURG, professeur des universités, Université de technologie de Troyes et CREIDD. Jacques DE GERLACHE, toxicologue, responsable de la communication et des affaires publiques du groupe Solvay en matière d'environnement et de santé. Nicolas DE SADELEER, directeur du Centre d'étude du droit de l'environnement aux FUSL, professeur invité à l'université Paris-Sud et à l'UCL. Jim DRATWA, mandataire du FNRS, Université libre de Bruxelles, Ecole des mines de Paris, Parlement européen (STOA). Olivier GODARD, directeur de recherche au CNRS, Laboratoire d'Econométrie de l'Ecole Polytechnique, Paris. Jean-Yves GOFFI, maître de conférences à l'Université Pierre Mendès France-Grenoble II où il enseigne la philosophie. Philippe LAMOTTE, journaliste au Vif/L'express. Co-auteur de Une réaction citoyenne (Bruxelles, Editions Luc Pire et Fondation roi Baudouin, 1997). Paul LANNOYE, député européen, président du Groupe des Verts/ALE au Parlement européen. Jean-Noël MISSA, chargé de cours à l'ULB, chercheur au FNRS, co-directeur du Centre de recherches interdisciplinaires en bioéthique (CRIB). Marc MORMONT, professeur de sociologie à la Fondation universitaire luxembourgeoise (Arlon-Belgique). Isabelle STENGERS, philosophe, chargée de cours associée à l'Université libre de Bruxelles Andrew STIRLING est professeur à l'Université du Sussex (SPRU, science and technology policy research). Franck TINLAND, professeur émérite de philosophie, Université Paul Valéry (Montpellier III). Jean-Pascal VAN YPERSELE, climatologue, chargé de cours à l'Université catholique de Louvain, membre du Conseil fédéral (belge) du développement durable. Edwin ZACCAÏ, chargé de cours et chercheur à l'IGEAT, co-directeur du Centre d'études du développement durable, Université libre de Bruxelles.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/53110/1/livre en pdf.pdf

 

Ouvrages édités à titre de seul éditeur ou en collaboration

2022

A la recherche de la conscience

Cleeremans, A., & Richelle, M. (2022). A la recherche de la conscience.  

 

2019

Implicit Learning: Fifty years on

Cleeremans, A., Allakhverdov, V., & Kuvaldina, M. (2019). Implicit Learning: Fifty years on. London: Psychology Press.  

 

2015

Biologie et devenir technologique de l'homme / Biology and the technological future of man, Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences. Biologies, volume 338, Issues 8-9, p. 521-633.

Missa, J.-N., & Perbal, L. (2015). Biologie et devenir technologique de l'homme / Biology and the technological future of man, Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences. Biologies, volume 338, Issues 8-9, p. 521-633.  

 

Encyclopédie du transhumanisme et du posthumanisme

Hottois, G., Missa, J.-N., & Perbal, L. (2015). Encyclopédie du transhumanisme et du posthumanisme: L'humain et ses préfixes. Paris: Vrin.  

Les préfixes de l'humain sont nombreux (ab- in-, para-, pré-, post-, proto-, sub-, sur-, trans-humain…). Ils invitent à réfléchir à la nature, aux limites et aux transformations de l'être humain ainsi qu'aux réactions intellectuelles et émotionnelles suscitées. Le trans/posthumanisme concerne toutes les techniques matérielles d'augmentation ou d'amélioration (physique, cognitive, émotionnelle) de l'homme, une perspective volontiers située dans le prolongement de l'humanisme progressiste des Lumières. Mais l'homme « amélioré ou augmenté » - « transformé » - pourrait s'éloigner toujours davantage des conditions de l'homme naturel « cultivé » ordinaire. Le transhumanisme risque de verser, brutalement ou imperceptiblement, dans le posthumanisme, référant à des entités qui, bien que « escendant » de l'homme, seraient aussi étrangères à celui-ci que l'espèce humaine est éloignée des formes de vie paléontologiques. Le posthumanisme flirte avec le nihilisme et l'imagination apocalyptique.Aux franges les plus audacieuses de la bioéthique, l'Encyclopédie n'écarte pas plus qu'elle ne focalise les questions éthiques. Elle englobe, sans les confondre, l'analyse conceptuelle, l'extrapolation technoscientifique et l'imagination spéculative. La première partie « Philosophie et éthique » est consacrée au débat philosophique relatif au trans/posthumanisme. Les entrées reflètent le vocabulaire conceptuel propre aux principaux auteurs trans/posthumanistes et à leurs critiques directs. La deuxième partie « Technoscience et médecine d'amélioration » parcourt les références actuelles aux sciences et aux techniques biomédicales inhérentes à la problématique transhumaniste. Elle distingue entre ce qui se fait, pourra probablement se faire ou relève du domaine de la projection spéculative et imaginaire.La troisième partie « Techniques, arts et science-fiction » est centrée autour des échanges entre technosciences et créations artistiques, spécialement l'imaginaire de la science-fiction où les thèmes post/transhumanistes sont fortement représentés.

 

2012

Les philosophes et le futur

Missa, J.-N., & Perbal, L. (2012). Les philosophes et le futur. Paris: Coll. Annales de Philosophie, Paris, Vrin.  

Depuis la Renaissance et les débuts de la Modernité, puis toujours davantage aux 18ème, 19ème et 20ème siècles, le thème du futur n'a cessé de gagner en importance et en visibilité, quoique sous des formes très diverses et ambivalentes. Comment les philosophes - en particulier, les philosophes modernes et contemporains - ont-ils réfléchi cette insistance croissante et comment des philosophies antérieures ont-elles abordé ou ignoré le futur? Le fil directeur des conférences du Colloque « Les Philosophes et le Futur » (Université Libre de Bruxelles, du 27 au 29 avril 2011) fut d'interpeller des philosophes sur la question du futur. S'ils en parlent, qu'en disent-ils et comment évaluer aujourd'hui ce qu'ils en disent? S'ils n'en parlent pas, comment expliquer ce silence et qu'en penser aujourd'hui ? Il s'agit, bien entendu, de la problématique plus globale de la temporalité, mais en focalisant le thème du futur dans l'économie des pensées philosophiques. Ce Colloque a été organisé en l'honneur du Professeur Gilbert Hottois. Le « futur » a été un thème de recherche constamment au centre de ses intérêts: il habite l'ensemble de ses écrits.

 

L'idéologie du progrès face à la tourment du post-modernisme.

André, V., Bricmont, J., Brunel, S., Buarque, C., Contzen, J.-P., Delruelle, E., Draguet, M., Haarscher, G., Hottois, G., Klein, E., Missa, J.-N., Morbey, J., Nemo, P., Nouvel, P., Poamé, L., Steinmetz, R., & Syrota, A. (2012). L'idéologie du progrès face à la tourment du post-modernisme. Bruxelles: Palais des Académies.  

Les articles rassemblés dans cet ouvrage sont le fruit d'un colloque multidisciplinaire, dont l'ambition était de s'interroger sur la notion de « progrès », mise à mal par la postmodernité et perçue de façon plurielle, dans un monde de plus en plus globalisé.L'idéologie du progrès, centrée autour de l'essor des sciences et des techniques - comprenant le développement économique et social, l'affirmation d'un certain nombre de libertés et de droits fondamentaux -, est, en effet, fréquemment remise en question, tout comme sa volonté universaliste. Pour comprendre cette situation, il a semblé utile de retracer son évolution, d'en dégager les valeurs et de comprendre les reproches dont elle fait l'objet. Les contributions d'auteurs d'Amérique du Sud, d'Asie et d'Afrique permettent également d'entrevoir le sens qu'est donné à l'idée de « progrès » dans des contextes non occidentaux.Le doute dans le progrès, cette « tourmente » postmoderniste, mérite également qu'on en esquisse l'origine et l'histoire, à travers des domaines de recherche extrêmement variés. Mieux comprendre ce concept pourra, peut-être, aider à trouver les pistes d'un souffle nouveau en faveur du progrès.

 

2011

Philosophie du dopage

Missa, J.-N., & Nouvel, P. (2011). Philosophie du dopage. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.  

 

2009

The Oxford Companion to Consciousness

Bayne, T., Cleeremans, A., & Wilken, P. (2009). The Oxford Companion to Consciousness. Oxford: Oxford University Press.  

 

« Enhancement » : éthique et philosophie de la médecine d'amélioration

Missa, J.-N., & Perbal, L. (2009). « Enhancement » : éthique et philosophie de la médecine d'amélioration. Paris: Annales de Philosophie, Vrin.  

 

Réflexions sur la bioéthique

Daled, P.-F., & Lemaire, J. C. (2009). Réflexions sur la bioéthique. Bruxelles: Éditions Espace de Libertés.  

 

2008

Les maladies mentales

Missa, J.-N. (2008). Les maladies mentales. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.  

 

L'Envers de la raison

Daled, P.-F. (2008). L'Envers de la raison: Alentour de Canguilhem, Annales de l'Institut de philosophie de l'Université de Bruxelles. Paris: Vrin.  

 

2007

Brain and Consciousness

Taylor, J., Freeman, W., & Cleeremans, A. (2007). Brain and Consciousness: Special issue of Neural Networks.  

 

2003

The Unity of Consciousness

Cleeremans, A. (2003). The Unity of Consciousness: Binding, Integration, and Dissociation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.  

 

2002

Implicit Learning and Consciousness

French, R., & Cleeremans, A. (2002). Implicit Learning and Consciousness: An empirical, philosophical and computational consensus in the making. Hove: Psychology Press.  

 

Les traitements des maladies de l'âme et du cerveau

Missa, J.-N. (2002). Les traitements des maladies de l'âme et du cerveau: Aspects historiques et philosophiques. Paris: Seuil.  

 

Nouvelle Encyclopédie de Bioéthique

Missa, J.-N., & Hottois, G. (2002). Nouvelle Encyclopédie de Bioéthique. Bruxelles: De Boeck.  

 

2001

Fourth International Conference on Cognitive Modeling

Altmann, E., Cleeremans, A., Schunn, C., & Gray, W. (2001). Fourth International Conference on Cognitive Modeling. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.  

 

Proceedings of the AISB'01 Symposium on Nonconscious Intelligence: From Natural to Artificial

Lewicki, P., & Cleeremans, A. (2001). Proceedings of the AISB'01 Symposium on Nonconscious Intelligence: From Natural to Artificial: Society for the Study of Artificial Intelligence and the Simulation of Behavior.  

 

Nouvelle encyclopédie de bioéthique

Hottois, G., Missa, J.-N., Susanne, C., Pinsart, M.-G., & Chabot, P. (2001). Nouvelle encyclopédie de bioéthique: Médecine, environnement, biotechnologie.  

 

2000

Proceedings of the fourth Annual Meeting of the Association for the Scientific Study of Consciousness

Cleeremans, A. (2000). Proceedings of the fourth Annual Meeting of the Association for the Scientific Study of Consciousness: Special issue of Consciousness and Cognition.  

 

1999

Neurosciences

Missa, J.-N. (1999). Neurosciences. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.  

 

De l'eugénisme d'Etat à l'eugénisme privé, Etudes historiques et philosophiques

Missa, J.-N., & Susanne, C. (1999). De l'eugénisme d'Etat à l'eugénisme privé, Etudes historiques et philosophiques. Bruxelles: De Boeck.  

 

Matière pensante

Missa, J.-N. (1999). Matière pensante: Etudes historiques sur les conceptions matérialistes en philosophie de l'esprit. Paris: Vrin.  

 

1997

Current Directions in Implicit Learning

Cleeremans, A., & Content, A. (1997). Current Directions in Implicit Learning.  

 

Proceedings of the 50th Anniversary Meeting of the Belgian Psychological Society

Cleeremans, A., Kolinsky, R., & Mousty, P. (1997). Proceedings of the 50th Anniversary Meeting of the Belgian Psychological Society. Brussels: The Belgian Psychological Society.  

 

1996

Le devoir d'expérimenter

Missa, J.-N., & Susanne, C. (1996). Le devoir d'expérimenter: Etudes philosophiques, éthiques et juridiques sur la recherche biomédicale.  

 

Le devoir d'expérimenter

Missa, J.-N. (1996). Le devoir d'expérimenter. Bruxelles: De Boeck.  

 

1991

Philosophie de l'esprit et sciences du cerveau

Missa, J.-N. (1991). Philosophie de l'esprit et sciences du cerveau. Paris: Vrin.  

 

Parties d'ouvrages collectifs

A paraître

Anti-humanisme

Daled, P.-F. (2012). Anti-humanisme. In G. Hottois (Ed.), L'humain et ses préfixes: Une encyclopédie de l'humanisme, du transhumanisme et du posthumanisme. Paris: Vrin.(Pour demain).  

 

Anomal

Daled, P.-F. (2012). Anomal. In G. Hottois (Ed.), L'humain et ses préfixes: Une encyclopédie de l'humanisme, du transhumanisme et du posthumanisme. Paris: Vrin.(Pour demain).  

 

Fin de l'histoire

Daled, P.-F. (2012). Fin de l'histoire. In G. Hottois (Ed.), L'humain et ses préfixes: Une encyclopédie de l'humanisme, du transhumanisme et du posthumanisme. Paris: Vrin.(Pour demain).  

 

Canguilhem Georges

Daled, P.-F. (2012). Canguilhem Georges. In G. Hottois (Ed.), L'humain et ses préfixes: Une encyclopédie de l'humanisme, du transhumanisme et du posthumanisme. Paris: Vrin.(Pour demain).  

 

Mort de l'homme

Daled, P.-F. (2012). Mort de l'homme. In G. Hottois (Ed.), L'humain et ses préfixes: Une encyclopédie de l'humanisme, du transhumanisme et du posthumanisme. Paris: Vrin.(Pour demain).  

 

Normal/pathologique

Daled, P.-F. (2012). Normal/pathologique. In G. Hottois (Ed.), L'humain et ses préfixes: Une encyclopédie de l'humanisme, du transhumanisme et du posthumanisme. Paris: Vrin.(Pour demain).  

 

Surhomme

Daled, P.-F. (2012). Surhomme. In G. Hottois (Ed.), L'humain et ses préfixes: Une encyclopédie de l'humanisme, du transhumanisme et du posthumanisme. Paris: Vrin.(Pour demain).  

 

Superman

Daled, P.-F. (2012). Superman. In G. Hottois (Ed.), L'humain et ses préfixes: Une encyclopédie de l'humanisme, du transhumanisme et du posthumanisme. Paris: Vrin.(Pour demain).  

 

Santé/maladie

Daled, P.-F. (2012). Santé/maladie. In G. Hottois (Ed.), L'humain et ses préfixes: Une encyclopédie de l'humanisme, du transhumanisme et du posthumanisme. Paris: Vrin.(Pour demain).  

 

Tératologie

Daled, P.-F. (2012). Tératologie. In G. Hottois (Ed.), L'humain et ses préfixes: Une encyclopédie de l'humanisme, du transhumanisme et du posthumanisme. Paris: Vrin.(Pour demain).  

 

2023

Bioéthique et science-fiction : zoom sur la pensée de Gilbert Hottois

Missa, J.-N. (2023). Bioéthique et science-fiction : zoom sur la pensée de Gilbert Hottois. In Ce que le cinéma dit (ou ne dit pas) de la bioéthique et du droit. Clermont Ferrand: Centre Michel de l'Hospital, Ecole de Droit, Université Clermont Auvergne éditions.  
https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/368471/3/15-MISSA.pdf

 

2022

Transhumanisme et amélioration des performances sportives: un point de vue éthique et philosophique

Missa, J.-N. (2022). Transhumanisme et amélioration des performances sportives: un point de vue éthique et philosophique. In Njoh Mouelle et le transhumanisme en Afrique. Paris: L'Harmattan.  

 

Gilbert Hottois et la science fiction: une introduction

Missa, J.-N. (2022). Gilbert Hottois et la science fiction: une introduction. In G. Hottois (Ed.), La science fiction. Une introduction historique et philosophique. Paris: Vrin.(Pour Demain).  

 

2021

De la technoscience chez Gilbert Hottois: une introduction

Missa, J.-N. (2021). De la technoscience chez Gilbert Hottois: une introduction. In Allayidi, Dalma, De la technoscience chez Gilbert Hottois : origine, implications et enjeux (pp. 11-28). Paris: Connaissances et Savoirs.  

 

2019

La question du dopage : une analyse philosophique

Missa, J.-N. (2019). La question du dopage : une analyse philosophique. In Textes clés d'éthique du sport. Morale sportive, performance, agentivité (pp. 125-144). Paris: Vrin.  

 

THE MIND IS DEEP

Cleeremans, A. (2019). THE MIND IS DEEP. In Implicit Learning: 50 Years on (pp. 38-70). Taylor and Francis.  

Empirically, the central characteristic of unconscious processing is the observation that an agent's behaviour is influenced by knowledge of which it remains unaware. Connectionist models have provided genuine insights into how knowledge can influence processing without access—a hallmark of unconscious processing—and of how change can accrue as a result of mere information processing—a hallmark of the phenomena of implicit learning. An important consequence of the fact that long-term knowledge in connectionist networks accrues in connection weights as a mandatory consequence of information processing is that connectionist models capture, without any further assumptions, two of the most important characteristics of implicit learning, namely the fact that learning is incidental and mandatory, and the fact that the resulting knowledge is difficult to express. Numerous theories of consciousness have been proposed over the last twenty years. Global Workspace Theory (GWT) is the most consensual account of the functional characteristics of consciousness.

 

CAN WE PLAY SPACE INVADERS UNCONSCIOUSLY? (A: PROBABLY NOT)

San Anton, E., Cleeremans, A., & Destrebecqz, A. (2019). CAN WE PLAY SPACE INVADERS UNCONSCIOUSLY? (A: PROBABLY NOT). In Implicit Learning: 50 Years on (pp. 133-159). Taylor and Francis.  

Associative learning is the acquisition of knowledge about the relationships between environmental features. The main objective of this study is to contribute to the ongoing debate that opposes associative and inferential theories of learning. According to inferential theories, learning is the result of inferences and reasoning on propositional representations. As a consequence, awareness of a rule always precedes the corresponding behavioral changes. According to associative theories, however, learning involves the gradual updating of the associative strength between the mental representations of the stimuli. On this view, consciousness is not mandatory for learning to take place. To test these contrasted predictions, we studied how behavior and consciousness change over the course of learning. Participants played a “Space Invaders” game in which they had to repeatedly press the spacebar to destroy Martian spaceships to prevent them from landing on Earth. Occasionally, they also had to avoid shooting at a protective Martian shield, which reflected back laser shots if fired upon, hence resulting in an immediate and massive invasion. Unbeknownst to participants, the shield's occurrence was announced by cryptic signals (in Experiment 1, sounds and signs written in a Martian alphabet; in Experiment 2, sounds in Martian language), the signification of which was not conveyed to participants. In Experiment 1, during learning, participants also had to report, after each block, whether they believed their performance had improved and how they thought they had managed to improve it. In Experiment 2, participants had to help a control tower decide whether the shield would appear or not. We obtained measures of both the behavioral manifestation of associative learning (by recording bar-pressing rates before the occurrence of the shield) and its availability to awareness. Results suggest that participants learn the task in a gradual manner, as bar-pressing rate decreased after the presentation of the predicting cryptic signal. In Experiment 1, analysis of the verbal reports indicates that although some participants use intentional strategies and explicit rules to perform the task, some also exhibit learning of the association through their behavioral responses while remaining unable to describe the rule verbally. In Experiment 2, we observed that attention and the quality of representation between two events have an effect on learning: learning becomes conscious faster if participants learn intentionally and if the associated events are actually presented. In closing, we discuss the extent to which these results constitute evidence of unconscious associative learning and whether they are congruent with a dual-process learning theory.

 

2018

Dis, c'est quoi le transhumanisme? (Préface)

Missa, J.-N. (2018). Dis, c'est quoi le transhumanisme? (Préface). In D. Lecocq (Ed.), Dis, c'est quoi le transhumanisme? (pp. 5-10). Bruxelles: Renaissance du livre.  

 

La question de l'avenir de l'homme : approches historiques et prospectives.

Groenen, M., & Missa, J.-N. (2018). La question de l'avenir de l'homme : approches historiques et prospectives. In Y. C. Zarka (Ed.), Les révolutions du 21e siècle (1 ed., pp. 537-564). Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.  

 

2017

Dopage Comprendre et prévenir (Postface)

Missa, J.-N. (2017). Dopage Comprendre et prévenir (Postface). In Dopage. Prévenir et comprendre (pp. 288-292). Paris: Elsevier.  

 

Parlons bioéthique

Missa, J.-N. (2017). Parlons bioéthique: Entretien entre Jean-Noël Missa et Margarita Boladeras. In M. Boladeras (Ed.), Parlons Bioéthique (pp. 103-145). Laval: Presses de l'Université de Laval.  

 

Causes and consequences of the belief in free will

Rigoni, D., Cleeremans, A., & Brass, M. (2017). Causes and consequences of the belief in free will. In The Science of Lay Theories: How Beliefs Shape Our Cognition, Behavior, and Health (pp. 229-242). Springer International Publishing. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-57306-9_10  

 

2016

Intérêts et limites de la réalité virtuelle en revalidation neuropsychologique

Camara Lopez, M., & Cleeremans, A. (2016). Intérêts et limites de la réalité virtuelle en revalidation neuropsychologique. In X. Seron & M. Van der Linden (Eds.), Traité de neuropsychologie clinique de l'adulte: tome 2 - revalidation (2 ed., p. 21). belgique: De boeck supérieur.(Neuropsychologie).  

 

De l'échec de la politique antidopage

Missa, J.-N. (2016). De l'échec de la politique antidopage. In Du souci de soi au sport augmenté: Essais sur le corps entraîné, dopé, appareillé (Vigarello, G, ed.) (pp. 95-114). Presses des Mines, Paris.  

 

2015

Implicit learning of non-adjacent contingencies: A graded, dissociative account.

Onnis, L., Destrebecqz, A., Christiansen, M., Chater, N., & Cleeremans, A. (2015). Implicit learning of non-adjacent contingencies: A graded, dissociative account. In P. Rebuschat (Ed.), Implicit learning of non-adjacent contingencies: A graded, dissociative account., Vol. 48. Implicit and explicit learning of languages (1 ed., pp. 213-245). Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company.(Studies in Bilingualism).  

 

Biotechnology and the Future of Sport: A Scenario

Missa, J.-N. (2015). Biotechnology and the Future of Sport: A Scenario. In S. Bateman & J. Gayon (Eds.), Inquiring into Human Enhancement: Interdisciplinary and International Perspectives (pp. 229-252). Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan.  

 

How can we measure awareness? An overview of current methods

Timmermans, B., & Cleeremans, A. (2015). How can we measure awareness? An overview of current methods. In M. Overgaard (Ed.), How can we measure awareness? An overview of current methods, Behavioural Methods in Consciousness Research (1 ed., pp. 21-46). Oxford: Oxford University Press.  
https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/217744/3/15-TimmermansCleeremans.pdf

 

Prolongation de la vie

Missa, J.-N. (2015). Prolongation de la vie. In G. Hottois, J.-N. Missa, & L. Perbal (Eds.), Encyclopédie du transhumanisme et du posthumanisme (pp. 311-330). Paris: Vrin.  

 

Dopage

Missa, J.-N. (2015). Dopage. In G. Hottois, J.-N. Missa, & L. Perbal (Eds.), Encyclopédie du transhumanisme et du posthumanisme (pp. 241-246). Paris: Vrin.  

 

2014

Les menaces venant de l'espace:une introduction

Missa, J.-N. (2014). Les menaces venant de l'espace:une introduction. In J.-P. Contzen (Ed.), Les menaces venant de l'espace. Bruxelles: Académie Royale de Belgique.  

 

On the other side of the Mirror

Doyen, S., Klein, O., Simons, D. J., & Cleeremans, A. (2014). On the other side of the Mirror: Priming in Cognitive and Social Psychology. In D. Molden (Ed.), Understanding Priming Effects in Social Psychology (pp. 14-34). New York: Guilford Press.  

 

2013

Dialogo sobre bioética (con Margarita Boladeras)

Missa, J.-N. (2013). Dialogo sobre bioética (con Margarita Boladeras). In M. Boladeras (Ed.), El impacto de la tecnociencia en el mundo humano — Dialogos sobre bioetica (pp. 171-212). Barcelona: Tecnos.  

 

"La tentation psychochirurgicale" —La leucotomie en Belgique dans les années 1940 et 1950

Missa, J.-N. (2013). "La tentation psychochirurgicale" —La leucotomie en Belgique dans les années 1940 et 1950. In II Jornadas de Historia da Psiquiatra e Saùde Mental, Coimbra: Collecçao Ciências, tecnologias e imaginarios. estudios de Historia Seculos XVIII-XX. Coimbra: Coimbra Universidade.  

 

Conscious and unconscious cognition: A graded, dynamic perspective

Cleeremans, A. (2013). Conscious and unconscious cognition: A graded, dynamic perspective. In Progress in Psychological Science around the World. Volume 1 Neural, Cognitive and Developmental Issues: Congress Proceedings: XVIII International Congress of Psychology, Beijing, 2004 (pp. 401-418). Taylor and Francis. doi:10.4324/9780203783122  

 

2012

Futur de l'homme et philosophie transhumaniste

Missa, J.-N. (2012). Futur de l'homme et philosophie transhumaniste. In J.-N. Missa & L. Perbal (Eds.), Les philosophes et le futur (pp. 227-239). Paris: Vrin.  

 

Progrès de la biomédecine et futur de l'homme: la question de la prolongation de la vie

Missa, J.-N. (2012). Progrès de la biomédecine et futur de l'homme: la question de la prolongation de la vie. In V. André & J. Bricmont (Eds.), L'idéologie du progrès dans la tourmente du postmodernisme, 2012 (pp. 111-131). Academie-editions.  

 

L'idéal de l'ingénieur en biomédecine et la question de l'amélioration de l'humain

Missa, J.-N. (2012). L'idéal de l'ingénieur en biomédecine et la question de l'amélioration de l'humain. In C. Susanne & G. Sand (Eds.), Bioéthique: pour un progrès de l'humanité. Bruxelles: Memogrammes.  

 

2011

Dopage, médecine d'amélioration et avenir du sport

Missa, J.-N. (2011). Dopage, médecine d'amélioration et avenir du sport. In J.-N. Missa & P. Nouvel (Eds.), Philosophie du dopage (pp. 35-83). Paris: PUF.  

 

Progrès et amélioration

Missa, J.-N. (2011). Progrès et amélioration. In D. Lecourt (Ed.), L'avenir du progrès (pp. 50-59). Paris: Institut Diderot.  

 

Psychosurgery and physical brain manipulation

Missa, J.-N. (2011). Psychosurgery and physical brain manipulation. In R. Chadwick (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Applied Ethics (2nd edition). Elsevier.  

 

Soigner les criminels ?

Missa, J.-N. (2011). Soigner les criminels ?: Pharmacologie et psychochirurgie. In Crime et Folie (pp. 323-344). Paris: Gallimard.  

 

Disentangling perceptual and motor sequence learning in amnesic patients: the motor component revisited

Vandenberghe, M., Michiels, S., Fery, P., Cleeremans, A., & Bier, J. C. (2011). Disentangling perceptual and motor sequence learning in amnesic patients: the motor component revisited. In K. Kelley (Ed.), Issues, Theory, and Research in Industrial/Organizational Psychology. North-Holland: Nova Science Publishers.(Advances in Psychology, 82).  

 

2009

Implicit motor learning in discrete and continuous tasks

Chambaron, S., Berberian, B., Delbecque, L., Ginhac, D., & Cleeremans, A. (2009). Implicit motor learning in discrete and continuous tasks: Toward a possible account of discrepant results. In L. Pellegrino (Ed.), Handbook of Motor Skills: Development, impairment and therapy (pp. 139-155). Nova Science Publishers.  

Can one learn implicitly, that is, without conscious awareness of what it is that one learns? Daily life is replete with situations where our behavior is seemingly influenced by knowledge to which we have little access. Riding a bicycle, playing tennis or driving a car, all involve mastering complex sets of motor skills, yet we are at a loss when it comes to explaining exactly how we perform such physical feats. Thus, while it is commonly accepted and hence unsurprising that we have little access to the cognitive processes involved in mental operations, it also appears that knowledge itself can remain inaccessible to report yet influence behavior. Reber, who coined the expression “implicit learning” in 1967, defined it as “the process whereby people learn without intent and without being able to clearly articulate what they learn” (Cleeremans, Destrebecqz, & Boyer, 1998). The research described in this chapter is positioned at the confluence of two different domains: Implicit Learning on the one hand, and Skill Acquisition on the other. The two domains have remained largely independent from each other, but their intersection nevertheless constitutes a field of primary import: the implicit motor learning field. The hallmark of implicit motor learning is the capacity to acquire skill through physical practice without conscious recollection of what elements of performance have improved. Unfortunately, studies dealing with implicit motor learning are not very abundant (Pew, 1974; Magill & Hall, 1989; Wulf & Schmidt, 1997; Shea, Wulf, Whitacre, & Park, 2001). These studies provide an apparently straightforward demonstration of the possibility of unconsciously learning the structure of a complex continuous task in a more efficient way than explicit learning allows. Nevertheless, other evidence seems to challenge this view. Indeed, recent studies (Chambaron, Ginhac, Ferrel-Chapus & Perruchet, 2006; Ooteghem, Allard, Buchanan, Oates & Horak, 2008) suggest that taking advantage from the repetition of continuous events may not be as easy as previous research leads us to believe. Indeed, these studies have suggested that sequence learning in continuous tracking tasks might be artefatctually driven by peculiarities of the experimental material rather than by implicit sequence learning per se. Consequently, a central goal of this chapter will be to reconcile these discrepant results so as to better characterize the conditions in which implicit motor learning occurs. Moreover, understanding what facilitates or prevents learning of regularities in motor tasks will be useful both in sport and in motor rehabilitation fields.

 

Bewusstsein

Cleeremans, A. (2009). Bewusstsein: Die These der radikalen Plastizität. In M. Jung & J.-C. Heilinger (Eds.), Funktionen des Erlebens (pp. 93-120). Berlin: De Gruyter.  

 

Computational Correlate of Consciousness

Cleeremans, A. (2009). Computational Correlate of Consciousness. In T. Bayne, A. Cleeremans, & P. Wilken (Eds.), The Oxford Companion to Consciousness. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.  

 

Connectionist Models

McClelland, J. L., & Cleeremans, A. (2009). Connectionist Models. In T. Bayne, A. Cleeremans, & P. Wilken (Eds.), The Oxford Companion to Consciousness. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.  

 

Implicit memory and implicit learning

Cleeremans, A. (2009). Implicit memory and implicit learning. In W. Banks (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Consciousness (pp. 369-381). Amsterdam: Elsevier. doi:10.1016/B978-012373873-8.00047-5  

Implicit learning and implicit memory both refer to the nonconscious effects that prior information processing may exert on subsequent behavior. Memory for a past event is implicit when it influences ongoing behavior in the absence of conscious recollection of that event. Learning is implicit when people are found to have become sensitive to the regularities shared by a stimulus domain in the absence of a correlated ability to report on the acquired knowledge. Both domains are characterized by continuing definitional, methodological, and theoretical debates about the nature of the differences between information processing with and without awareness. © 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/116711/3/Elsevier_97523.pdf

 

Spock

Cleeremans, A. (2009). Spock. In T. Bayne, A. Cleeremans, & P. Wilken (Eds.), The Oxford Companion to Consciousness. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.  

 

Quantitative and qualitative differences between implicit and explicit sequence learning

Bayne, T., Cleeremans, A., & WILKEN, P. (2009). Quantitative and qualitative differences between implicit and explicit sequence learning. In Companion to Consciousness. Oxford University Press.  

 

Que peut-on espérer d'une théorie neuroscientifique de la conscience

Missa, J.-N. (2009). Que peut-on espérer d'une théorie neuroscientifique de la conscience: Plaidoyer pour une approche évolutionniste. In L. Faucher & P. Poirier (Eds.), Philosophie et Neuroscience. Paris: Vrin.  

 

Les fondements neuroscientifiques de la psychopathologie 

Missa, J.-N. (2009). Les fondements neuroscientifiques de la psychopathologie : de la découverte des médicaments psychotropes aux premières hypothèses sur les fondements scientifiques des maladies mentales. In N. Franck, C. Hervé, & J. Rozenberg (Eds.), Psychose, langage et action: Approches neuro-cognitives (pp. 25-33). Bruxelles: De Boeck.  

 

Introduction

Daled, P.-F. (2009). Introduction: De l'actualité de l'éthique appliquée. In Réflexions sur la bioéthique (pp. 7-12). Bruxelles: Éditions Espace de Libertés.(La Pensée et les Hommes, 74).  

 

Actualité de la bioéthique

Daled, P.-F. (2009). Actualité de la bioéthique. In Réflexions sur la bioéthique (pp. 13-37). Bruxelles: Éditions Espace de Libertés.(La Pensée et les Hommes, 74).  

 

Le libre examen 

Daled, P.-F. (2009). Le libre examen : la vie d'un principe. In 1834: L'ULB fête ses 175 ans (pp. 109-135). Bruxelles: Éditions Espace de Libertés.(La Pensée et les Hommes, 73).  

 

2008

La psychopharmacologie et la naissance de la psychiatrie biologique

Missa, J.-N. (2008). La psychopharmacologie et la naissance de la psychiatrie biologique. In J.-N. Missa (Ed.), Les maladies mentales. Paris: Presses universitaires de France.  

 

Le sujet en tant que fiction et déplacement chez Canguilhem 

Daled, P.-F. (2008). Le sujet en tant que fiction et déplacement chez Canguilhem : une éthique épistémologique. In M.-G. Pinsart (Ed.), Narration et Identité: De la philosophie à la bioéthique (pp. 61-78). Paris: Vrin.  

 

Introduction 

Daled, P.-F. (2008). Introduction : L'envers de la raison, du “ principe de Broussais ” à Foucault via Canguilhem. In L'Envers de la raison: Alentour de Canguilhem (pp. 7-16). Paris: Vrin.(Annales de l'Institut de philosophie de l'Université de Bruxelles).  

 

Santé, folie et vérité aux XIXe et XXe siècles 

Daled, P.-F. (2008). Santé, folie et vérité aux XIXe et XXe siècles : Nietzsche, Canguilhem et Foucault. In L'Envers de la raison: Alentour de Canguilhem (pp. 115-140). Paris: Vrin.(Annales de l'Institut de philosophie de l'Université de Bruxelles).  

 

2007

Computational Models of Implicit Learning

Cleeremans, A., & Dienes, Z. (2007). Computational Models of Implicit Learning. In R. Sun (Ed.), The Cambridge Handbook of Computational Modeling (pp. 396-421). Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.  
https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/116654/4/cc6b3226-b685-432f-908a-d5b413ce77fb.txt

 

2006

L'homme recombiné

Missa, J.-N. (2006). L'homme recombiné: les enjeux éthiques et philosophiques de la modification du génome de l'être humain. In J.-Y. Goffi (Ed.), Regards sur les technosciences (pp. 111-133). Paris: Vrin.  

 

2005

L'unité de la conscience

Cleeremans, A. (2005). L'unité de la conscience. In M. Cazenave (Ed.), De la science à la philosophie: Y a-t-il une unité de la connaissance? (pp. 147-171). Paris: Albin Michel.  

 

Mémoire et associationnisme

Missa, J.-N. (2005). Mémoire et associationnisme: de T. Ribot à J.M. Fuster. In J.-C. Dupont (Ed.), Histoires de la mémoire: pathologie, psychologie et biologie (pp. 285-300). Paris: Vuibert.  

 

A quoi pense Herbert Feigl ?

Missa, J.-N. (2005). A quoi pense Herbert Feigl ?: Théore de l'identité et inaccessibilité de l'esprit. In B. Andrieu (Ed.), De la physique au mental (pp. 149-164). Paris: Vrin.  

 

2003

Temporal effects in sequence learning

Destrebecqz, A., & Cleeremans, A. (2003). Temporal effects in sequence learning. In L. Jiménez (Ed.), Attention and Implicit Learning (pp. 181-213). Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing.(Advances in consciousness research, 48).  

 

Models of Implicit learning

Cleeremans, A. (2003). Models of Implicit learning. In L. Nadel (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Cognitive Sciences (pp. 491-499). London: Macmillan Publishers.  

 

Cerebral correlates of memory consolidation during human sleep

Peigneux, P., Laureys, S., Cleeremans, A., & Maquet, P. (2003). Cerebral correlates of memory consolidation during human sleep: contribution of functional neuroimaging. In P. Maquet, C. Smith, & R. Stickgold (Eds.), Sleep and brain plasticity (pp. 209-224). Oxford: Oxford university press.  

 

2002

Implicit learning and consciousness

Cleeremans, A., & Jiménez, L. (2002). Implicit learning and consciousness: A graded, dynamic perspective. In R. French & A. Cleeremans (Eds.), Implicit Learning and Consciousness: An empirical, philosophical and computational consensus in the making (pp. 1-40). Hove: Psychology Press.  

 

Ethics of Experimentation on Human beings

Missa, J.-N. (2002). Ethics of Experimentation on Human beings. In R. Lie, P. Schotsmans, B. C. Hansen, & T. Meulenbergs (Eds.), Healthy Thoughts. European Perspective on Health Care Ethics. Leuven- Paris-Virginia: Peeters- Sterling,  

 

2001

Conscious and unconscious processes in cognition

Cleeremans, A. (2001). Conscious and unconscious processes in cognition. In International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences (pp. 2584-2589). London: Elsevier.  

 

Une histoire intellectuelle de l'Université libre de Bruxelles

Daled, P.-F. (2001). Une histoire intellectuelle de l'Université libre de Bruxelles. In L'université en questions: Marché des savoirs, nouvelle agora, tour d'ivoire ? (pp. 175-188). Bruxelles: Labor.  

 

2000

ADN recombinant et bioéthique

Missa, J.-N. (2000). ADN recombinant et bioéthique: une application précoce du principe de précaution. In E. Zaccai & J.-N. Missa (Eds.), Le principe de précaution: significations et conséquences (pp. 177-182). Bruxelles: Editions de l'Université de Bruxelles.  

 

Is it safe to push the green button?

Missa, J.-N. (2000). Is it safe to push the green button?: Fusion, fission et réplication cérébrales. In G. Hottois (Ed.), Philosophie et Science-Fiction. Paris: Vrin.  

 

1999

From state eugenics to private eugenics

Missa, J.-N. (1999). From state eugenics to private eugenics. In F. F. Sureau & F. Sheffield (Eds.), Ethical problems in Obstetrics and Gynaecology.(Clinical Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 13/4).  

 

La description des lois de la conscience

Missa, J.-N. (1999). La description des lois de la conscience. In Numéro thématique Philosophie et neurosciences.(Revue Internationale de Philosophie).  

 

Introduction à l'eugénisme

Missa, J.-N., & Susanne, C. (1999). Introduction à l'eugénisme. In J.-N. Missa & C. Susanne (Eds.), De l'eugénisme d'état à l'eugénisme privé (pp. 5-9). De Boeck Université.  

 

L'individu n'est rien, l'espèce est tout

Missa, J.-N. (1999). L'individu n'est rien, l'espèce est tout: analyse historique de l'évolution de la question de l'eugénisme au XXe siècle. In J.-N. Missa & C. Susanne (Eds.), De l'eugénisme d'Etat à l'eugénisme privé: Etudes historiques et philosophiques (pp. 9-39). Bruxelles: De Boeck.  

 

Les localisations cérébrales

Missa, J.-N. (1999). Les localisations cérébrales. In D. Lecourt (Ed.), Dictionnaire d'Histoire et de Philosophie des Sciences (pp. 575-580). Paris: PUF.  

 

Het statuut van het menseliyk embryo in vitro

Missa, J.-N. (1999). Het statuut van het menseliyk embryo in vitro: terminologie en filosofische benadering. In Y. Englert & A. Van Orshoven (Eds.), Het menselijk embryo in vitro. Leuven: Garant.  

 

Histoire du concept de réflexe

Missa, J.-N. (1999). Histoire du concept de réflexe. In D. Lecourt (Ed.), Dictionnaire d'Histoire et de Philosophie des Sciences (pp. 818-822). Paris: PUF.  

 

Matière pensante

Missa, J.-N. (1999). Matière pensante: une introduction historique. In Matière pensante: Etudes historiques sur les conceptions matérialistes en philosophie de l'esprit (pp. 7-19). Paris: Vrin.  

 

Le matérialisme de la médecine physiologique de Broussais et le déisme de sa profession de foi

Daled, P.-F. (1999). Le matérialisme de la médecine physiologique de Broussais et le déisme de sa profession de foi. In Matière pensante (pp. 83-97). Paris: Vrin.(Annales de l'Institut de philosophie de l'Université de Bruxelles).  

 

1998

Implicit Sequence Learning

Cleeremans, A., & Jiménez, L. (1998). Implicit Sequence Learning: The truth is in the details. In M. Stadler & P. Frensch (Eds.), Handbook of Implicit Learning (pp. 323-364). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.  

 

1997

Principles for implicit learning

Cleeremans, A. (1997). Principles for implicit learning. In D. A. Berry (Ed.), How implicit is implicit learning? (pp. 195-234). Oxford (England): Oxford University Press.  
https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/116666/4/ef0e04a8-ac31-4641-8062-491b426ec116.txt

 

Psychosurgery and physical brain manipulation

Missa, J.-N. (1997). Psychosurgery and physical brain manipulation. In Encyclopedia of Applied Ethics (pp. 735-744). San Diego: Academic Press.  

 

Les systèmes matérialistes des philosophes et des médecins sur l'âme de l'homme

Missa, J.-N. (1997). Les systèmes matérialistes des philosophes et des médecins sur l'âme de l'homme: de La Mettrie aux neuroscientifiques du XXe siècle. In J.-C. Bourdin (Ed.), Les matérialismes philosophiques (pp. 133-150). Kimé.  

 

Recherche clinique et recherche expérimentale en neurologie au vingtième siècle

Missa, J.-N. (1997). Recherche clinique et recherche expérimentale en neurologie au vingtième siècle: paradoxes et solutions. In C. Debru (Ed.), Qu'est-ce que la physiologie?: Achèvement et renaissance (pp. 65-79). Vrin.  

 

Une critique positive du chapitre 2 de Matière et mémoire de Bergson

Missa, J.-N. (1997). Une critique positive du chapitre 2 de Matière et mémoire de Bergson. In P. Gallois (Ed.), Bergson et les neurosciences: Les Empêcheurs de penser en rond (pp. 65-84). Synthélabo.  

 

La théorie bergsonienne du cerveau-organe de l'action

Missa, J.-N. (1997). La théorie bergsonienne du cerveau-organe de l'action. In J.-L. Petit (Ed.), Les neurosciences et la philosophie de l'action (pp. 99-110). Paris: Vrin.  

 

1996

Ethique de l'expérimentation humaine

Missa, J.-N. (1996). Ethique de l'expérimentation humaine. In J.-N. Missa (Ed.), Le devoir d'expérimenter (pp. 5-7). Bruxelles: De Boeck.  

 

Les greffes expérimentales dans le cerveau de l'homme

Missa, J.-N. (1996). Les greffes expérimentales dans le cerveau de l'homme. In J.-N. Missa (Ed.), Le devoir d'expérimenter (pp. 43-56). Bruxelles: De Boeck.  

 

Ethique de l'expérimentation humaine

Missa, J.-N. (1996). Ethique de l'expérimentation humaine: la régulation des recherches dans le secteur des de la chirurgie du cerveau. In J. Lemaire & C. Susanne (Eds.), Bioéthique: Jusqu'où peut-on aller? (pp. 57-65). Bruxelles: Editions de l'Université de Bruxelles.  

 

Ethique de la psychochirurgie

Missa, J.-N. (1996). Ethique de la psychochirurgie: étude comparative et analyse de la situation en Belgique. In G. Huber (Ed.), Cerveau et psychisme humains: quelle éthique? (pp. 83-96). Paris: John Libbey Press.  

 

1995

Graded State Machines

Cleeremans, A., Servan-Schreiber, D., & McClelland, J. L. (1995). Graded State Machines: The representation of temporal contingencies in feedback networks. In Y. Chauvin & D. Rumelhart (Eds.), Back-propagation: Theory, Architectures and Applications (pp. 273-312). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.  
https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/116677/4/555067f3-f73d-4a06-a4eb-10bafaba9162.txt

 

1994

The representation of structure in sequence prediction tasks

Cleeremans, A. (1994). The representation of structure in sequence prediction tasks. In C. Umiltà & M. Moscovitch (Eds.), Attention and Performance XV: Conscious and non-conscious information processing (pp. 783-809). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.  
https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/116679/4/cb59f9d7-f466-4a60-b632-4ec5cca4c561.txt

 

Mort du cerveau et état végétatif chronique

Missa, J.-N. (1994). Mort du cerveau et état végétatif chronique: le problème de la relation esprit-cerveau à la fin de la vie. In B. Feltz (Ed.), Entre le corps et l'esprit: approche interdisciplinaire du Mind-Body Problem (pp. 169-179). Bruxelles: Pierre Mardaga éditeur.  

 

1993

Le cerveau, l'ordinateur et les modèles de la conscience

Missa, J.-N. (1993). Le cerveau, l'ordinateur et les modèles de la conscience. In F. Tinland (Ed.), Ordre biologique, ordre technologique. Champ Vallon.  

 

La philosophie face aux données neuroscientifiques de la vision des couleurs

Missa, J.-N. (1993). La philosophie face aux données neuroscientifiques de la vision des couleurs. In L. Couloubaritsis & J.-J. Wunenburger (Eds.), La couleur. Bruxelles: Ousia.  

 

1991

Learning the structure of event sequences

Cleeremans, A., & McClelland, J. L. (1991). Learning the structure of event sequences. In W. Kessen, A. Ortony, & F. Craik (Eds.), Memories, Thoughts, and Emotions: Essays in Honor of George Mandler (pp. 45-64). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.  

 

Les interprétations philosophiques des recherches sur les êtres au cerveau divisé

Missa, J.-N. (1991). Les interprétations philosophiques des recherches sur les êtres au cerveau divisé. In J.-N. Missa (Ed.), Philosophie de l'esprit et sciences du cerveau (pp. 25-50). Paris: Vrin.  

 

1990

The role of partial matches in comprehension

Reder, L. M., & Cleeremans, A. (1990). The role of partial matches in comprehension: The Moses Illusion revisited. In A. Graesser & G. Bower (Eds.), The Psychology of Learning and Motivation (pp. 233-257). New York: Academic Press.  
https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/116690/4/40152b97-572a-4e8c-b633-19c54392f821.txt

 

Philosophie matérialiste des émotions et recherches neuroscientifiques

Missa, J.-N. (1990). Philosophie matérialiste des émotions et recherches neuroscientifiques. In G. Hottois (Ed.), L'affect philosophe (pp. 159-175). Paris: Vrin.  

 

Articles dans des revues avec comité de lecture

A paraître

Age-related differences in prospective memory performance: a new virtual laboratory task simulating naturalistic setting

Camara Lopez, M., Fery, P., & Cleeremans, A. (2023). Age-related differences in prospective memory performance: a new virtual laboratory task simulating naturalistic setting.  

 

Le commun entre la terre et l'espace: avenir de l'humain, risques existentiel et conquête spatiale/Lo común entre la tierra y el espacio: futuro humano, riesgos existenciales y conquista del espacio

Missa, J.-N. (2024). Le commun entre la terre et l'espace: avenir de l'humain, risques existentiel et conquête spatiale/Lo común entre la tierra y el espacio: futuro humano, riesgos existenciales y conquista del espacio. Revista colombiana de bioetica.  
https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/368472/3/15-MISSA.pdf

 

L'éthique des “ Parties prenantes ” 

Daled, P.-F. (2011). L'éthique des “ Parties prenantes ” : une approche pour l'administration publique ? Pyramides, 22.  

 

2024

Radical associationism: Back to the future, or fast forward to the past?

Dolega, K., Destrebecqz, A., & Cleeremans, A. (2024). Radical associationism: Back to the future, or fast forward to the past? L'Année Psychologique, 124(2), 206-211.  
https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/375589/3/DolegaDestrebecqzCleeremans.pdf

 

Tests for consciousness in humans and beyond

Bayne, T., Seth, A. K., Massimini, M., Shepherd, J., Cleeremans, A., Fleming, S. S., Malach, R., Mattingley, J. J., Menon, D. K., Owen, A. M., Peters, M. M., Razi, A., & Mudrik, L. (2024). Tests for consciousness in humans and beyond. Trends in cognitive sciences, 28(5), 454-466. doi:10.1016/j.tics.2024.01.010  

Which systems/organisms are conscious? New tests for consciousness (‘C-tests') are urgently needed. There is persisting uncertainty about when consciousness arises in human development, when it is lost due to neurological disorders and brain injury, and how it is distributed in nonhuman species. This need is amplified by recent and rapid developments in artificial intelligence (AI), neural organoids, and xenobot technology. Although a number of C-tests have been proposed in recent years, most are of limited use, and currently we have no C-tests for many of the populations for which they are most critical. Here, we identify challenges facing any attempt to develop C-tests, propose a multidimensional classification of such tests, and identify strategies that might be used to validate them.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/374672/1/doi_358316.pdf

 

A construct-first approach to consciousness science

Fazekas, P., Cleeremans, A., & Overgaard, M. (2024). A construct-first approach to consciousness science. Neuroscience and biobehavioral reviews, 156, 105480. doi:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2023.105480  

We propose a new approach to consciousness science that instead of comparing complex theoretical positions deconstructs existing theories, takes their central assumptions while disregarding their auxiliary hypotheses, and focuses its investigations on the main constructs that these central assumptions rely on (like global workspace, recurrent processing, metarepresentation). Studying how these main constructs are anchored in lower-level constructs characterizing underlying neural processing will not just offer an alternative to theory comparisons but will also take us one step closer to empirical resolutions. Moreover, exploring the compatibility and possible combinations of the lower-level constructs will allow for new theoretical syntheses. This construct-first approach will improve our ability to understand the commitments of existing theories and pave the way for moving beyond them.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/371407/1/doi_355051.pdf

 

2023

What determines the neural response to snakes in the infant brain? A systematic comparison of color and grayscale stimuli

Bertels, J., De Heering, A., Bourguignon, M., Cleeremans, A., & Destrebecqz, A. (2023). What determines the neural response to snakes in the infant brain? A systematic comparison of color and grayscale stimuli. Frontiers in Psychology, 14. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2023.1027872  

Snakes and primates have coexisted for thousands of years. Given that snakes are the first of the major primate predators, natural selection may have favored primates whose snake detection abilities allowed for better defensive behavior. Aligning with this idea, we recently provided evidence for an inborn mechanism anchored in the human brain that promptly detects snakes, based on their characteristic visual features. What are the critical visual features driving human neural responses to snakes is an unresolved issue. While their prototypical curvilinear coiled shape seems of major importance, it remains possible that the brain responds to a blend of other visual features. Coloration, in particular, might be of major importance, as it has been shown to act as a powerful aposematic signal. Here, we specifically examine whether color impacts snake-specific responses in the naive, immature infant brain. For this purpose, we recorded the brain activity of 6-to 11-month-old infants using electroencephalography (EEG), while they watched sequences of color or grayscale animal pictures flickering at a periodic rate. We showed that glancing at colored and grayscale snakes generated specific neural responses in the occipital region of the brain. Color did not exert a major influence on the infant brain response but strongly increased the attention devoted to the visual streams. Remarkably, age predicted the strength of the snake-specific response. These results highlight that the expression of the brain-anchored reaction to coiled snakes bears on the refinement of the visual system.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/359898/1/doi_343542.pdf

 

Learning from humans to build social cognition among robots

Coucke, N., Heinrich, M. K., Cleeremans, A., & Dorigo, M. (2023). Learning from humans to build social cognition among robots. Frontiers in robotics and AI, 10. doi:10.3389/frobt.2023.1030416  

Self-organized groups of robots have generally coordinated their behaviors using quite simple social interactions. Although simple interactions are sufficient for some group behaviors, future research needs to investigate more elaborate forms of coordination, such as social cognition, to progress towards real deployments. In this perspective, we define social cognition among robots as the combination of social inference, social learning, social influence, and knowledge transfer, and propose that these abilities can be established in robots by building underlying mechanisms based on behaviors observed in humans. We review key social processes observed in humans that could inspire valuable capabilities in robots and propose that relevant insights from human social cognition can be obtained by studying human-controlled avatars in virtual environments that have the correct balance of embodiment and constraints. Such environments need to allow participants to engage in embodied social behaviors, for instance through situatedness and bodily involvement, but, at the same time, need to artificially constrain humans to the operational conditions of robots, for instance in terms of perception and communication. We illustrate our proposed experimental method with example setups in a multi-user virtual environment.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/365456/1/doi_349100.pdf

 

Dissociation between conscious and unconscious processes as a criterion for sentience

Ivanchei, I., Coucke, N., & Cleeremans, A. (2023). Dissociation between conscious and unconscious processes as a criterion for sentience. Animal Sentience, 8(33), 480. doi:10.51291/2377-7478.1816  

Based on the literature on human consciousness, we suggest that to demonstrate sentience in a system, one needs to demonstrate both conscious and unconscious processing in the system. Major theories of consciousness require the existence of both conscious and unconscious processes. Contrasting effects of conscious and unconscious processes have been successfully used in human studies and have begun being applied in animal sentience research as well.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/370968/1/doi_354612.pdf

 

Editorial: Methodological issues in consciousness research

Simione, L., Raffone, A., Kirov, R., Overgaard, M., Berkovich-Ohana, A., & Cleeremans, A. (2023). Editorial: Methodological issues in consciousness research. Frontiers in Psychology, 14, 1217732. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2023.1217732  
https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/372336/1/doi_355980.pdf

 

2022

Validity of the Empatica E4 wristband to estimate resting-state heart rate variability in a lab-based context

Stuyck, H., Dalla Costa, L., Cleeremans, A., & Van den Bussche, E. (2022). Validity of the Empatica E4 wristband to estimate resting-state heart rate variability in a lab-based context. International journal of psychophysiology, 182, 105-118.  
https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/355023/3/E4_validity_Stuycketal.pdf

 

Éloge de Gilbert Hottois

Missa, J.-N. (2022). Éloge de Gilbert Hottois. La Thérésienne., URL : https://popups.uliege.be/2593-4228/index.php?id=A1288.  
https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/355666/3/la_theresienne_2022_06_29_missa_hottoispdf.pdf

 

Aha! under pressure: The Aha! experience is not constrained by cognitive load

Stuyck, H., Cleeremans, A., & Van den Bussche, E. (2022). Aha! under pressure: The Aha! experience is not constrained by cognitive load. Cognition, 219, 104946. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2021.104946  

The Aha! moment- the sudden insight sometimes reached when solving a vexing problem- entails a different problem-solving experience than solution retrieval reached by an analytical, multistep strategy (i.e., non- insight). To date, the (un)conscious nature of insight remains debated. We addressed this by studying insight under cognitive load. If insight and non-insight problem solving rely on conscious, effortful processes, they should both be influenced by a concurrent cognitive load. However, if unconscious processes characterize insight, cognitive load might not affect it at all. Using a dual-task paradigm, young, healthy adults (N =106) solved 70 word puzzles under different cognitive loads. We confirmed that insight solutions were more often correct and received higher solution confidence. Importantly, as cognitive load increased, non-insight solutions became less frequent and required more solution time, whereas insightful ones remained mostly unaffected. This implies that insight problem solving did not compete for limited cognitive resources

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/336196/3/AhaUnderPressureStuycketal2022.pdf

 

Consciousness matters: phenomenal experience has functional value

Cleeremans, A., & Tallon-Baudry, C. (2022). Consciousness matters: phenomenal experience has functional value. Neuroscience of consciousness, 2022(1), niac007. doi:10.1093/nc/niac007  

'Why would we do anything at all if the doing was not doing something to us?' In other words: What is consciousness good for? Here, reversing classical views, according to many of which subjective experience is a mere epiphenomenon that affords no functional advantage, we propose that subject-level experience-'What it feels like'-is endowed with intrinsic value, and it is precisely the value agents associate with their experiences that explains why they do certain things and avoid others. Because experiences have value and guide behaviour, consciousness has a function. Under this hypothesis of 'phenomenal worthiness', we argue that it is only in virtue of the fact that conscious agents 'experience' things and 'care' about those experiences that they are 'motivated' to act in certain ways and that they 'prefer' some states of affairs vs. others. Overviewing how the concept of value has been approached in decision-making, emotion research and consciousness research, we argue that phenomenal consciousness has intrinsic value and conclude that if this is indeed the case, then it must have a function. Phenomenal experience might act as a mental currency of sorts, which not only endows conscious mental states with intrinsic value but also makes it possible for conscious agents to compare vastly different experiences in a common subject-centred space-a feature that readily explains the fact that consciousness is 'unified'. The phenomenal worthiness hypothesis, in turn, makes the 'hard problem' of consciousness more tractable, since it can then be reduced to a problem about function.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/346948/1/doi_330592.pdf

 

Modelling the simultaneous encoding/serial experience theory of the perceptual moment: a blink of meta-experience

Bowman, H., Jones, W., Pincham, H., Fleming, S., Cleeremans, A., & Smith, M. (2022). Modelling the simultaneous encoding/serial experience theory of the perceptual moment: a blink of meta-experience. Neuroscience of consciousness, 2022(1), niac003. doi:10.1093/nc/niac003  

One way to understand a system is to explore how its behaviour degrades when it is overloaded. This approach can be applied to understanding conscious perception by presenting stimuli in rapid succession in the 'same' perceptual event/moment. In previous work, we have identified a striking dissociation during the perceptual moment, between what is encoded into working memory [Lag-1 sparing in the attentional blink (AB)] and what is consciously perceived (Lag-1 impairing in the experiential blink). This paper links this dissociation to what, taking inspiration from the metacognition literature, could be called meta-experience; i.e. how the ability to track and comment on one's visual experience with subjectivity ratings reflects objective performance. Specifically, we provide evidence that the information (in bits) associated with an encoding into working memory decouples from the experiential reflection upon that perceptual/encoding event and that this decoupling is largest when there is the greatest perceptual overload. This is the meta-experiential blink. Meta-experiential self-observation is common to many computational models, including connectionist interpretations of consciousness, Bayesian observers and the readout-enhanced simultaneous type/serial token (reSTST) model. We assess how our meta-experiential blink data could be modelled using the concept of self-observation, providing model fits to behavioural and electroencephalogram responses in the reSTST model. We discuss the implications of our computational modelling of parallel encoding but serial experience for theories of conscious perception. Specifically, we (i) inform theories of Lag-1 sparing during the AB and (ii) consider the implications for the global workspace theory of conscious perception and higher-order theories of consciousness.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/346869/1/doi_330513.pdf

 

Implicit and explicit learning of socio-emotional information in a dynamic interaction with a virtual avatar

Costea, A. A., Jurchiș, R., Visu-Petra, L., Cleeremans, A., Norman, E., & Opre, A. (2022). Implicit and explicit learning of socio-emotional information in a dynamic interaction with a virtual avatar. Psychological research. doi:10.1007/s00426-022-01709-4  

Implicit learning (IL) deals with the non-conscious acquisition of structural regularities from the environment. IL is often deemed essential for acquiring regularities followed by social stimuli (e.g., other persons' behavior), hence is hypothesized to play a role in typical social functioning. However, our understanding of how this process might operate in social contexts is limited for two main reasons. First, while IL is highly sensitive to the characteristics of the surface stimuli upon which it operates, most IL studies have used surface stimuli with limited social validity (e.g., letters, symbols, etc.). Second, while the social environment is dynamic (i.e., our behaviors and reactions influence those of our social partners and vice-versa), the bulk of IL research employed noninteractive paradigms. Using a novel task, we examine whether IL is involved in the acquisition of regularities from a dynamic interaction with a realistic real-life-like agent. Participants (N = 115) interacted with a cinematic avatar that displayed different facial expressions. Their task was to regulate the avatar's expression to a specified level. Unbeknownst to them, an equation mediated the relationship between their responses and the avatar's expressions. Learning occurred in the task, as participants gradually increased their ability to bring the avatar in the target state. Subjective measures of awareness revealed that participants acquired both implicit and explicit knowledge from the task. This is the first study to show that IL operates in interactive situations upon socially relevant surface stimuli, facilitating future investigations of the role that IL plays in (a)typical social functioning.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/350466/1/doi_334110.pdf

 

Theory as adversarial collaboration

Cleeremans, A. (2022). Theory as adversarial collaboration. Nature Human Behaviour. doi:10.1038/s41562-021-01285-4  
https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/341599/3/AXCHHBpublished.pdf

 

2021

Distinct motivations to seek out information in healthy individuals and problem gamblers

Cogliati Dezza, I., Noël, X., Cleeremans, A., & Yu, A. J. (2021). Distinct motivations to seek out information in healthy individuals and problem gamblers. Translational Psychiatry, 11(1), 408. doi:10.1038/s41398-021-01523-3  

As massive amounts of information are becoming available to people, understanding the mechanisms underlying information-seeking is more pertinent today than ever. In this study, we investigate the underlying motivations to seek out information in healthy and addicted individuals. We developed a novel decision-making task and a novel computational model which allows dissociating the relative contribution of two motivating factors to seek out information: a desire for novelty and a general desire for knowledge. To investigate whether/how the motivations to seek out information vary between healthy and addicted individuals, in addition to healthy controls we included a sample of individuals with gambling disorder—a form of addiction without the confound of substance consumption and characterized by compulsive gambling. Our results indicate that healthy subjects and problem gamblers adopt distinct information-seeking “modes”. Healthy information-seeking behavior was mostly motivated by a desire for novelty. Problem gamblers, on the contrary, displayed reduced novelty-seeking and an increased desire for accumulating knowledge compared to healthy controls. Our findings not only shed new light on the motivations driving healthy and addicted individuals to seek out information, but they also have important implications for the treatment and diagnosis of behavioral addiction.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/331324/1/doi_314968.pdf

 

The obedient mind and the volitional brain: A neural basis for preserved sense of agency and sense of responsibility under coercion

Caspar, E., Beyer, F., Cleeremans, A., & Haggard, P. (2021). The obedient mind and the volitional brain: A neural basis for preserved sense of agency and sense of responsibility under coercion. PloS one, 16(10 October), e0258884. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0258884  

Milgram's classical studies famously suggested a widespread willingness to obey authority, even to the point of inflicting harm. Important situational factors supporting obedience, such as proximity with the victim, have been established. Relatively little work has focused on how coercion affects individual cognition, or on identifying the cognitive factors that underlie inter-individual differences in the tendency to yield to coercion. Here, we used fMRI to investigate the neural systems associated with changes in volitional processes associated with sense of agency and sense of responsibility under coercion. Participants either freely chose, or were instructed by the experimenter, to give mildly painful electric shocks to another participant, or to refrain from doing so. We have previously shown that coercion reduces temporal binding, which has been proposed as an implicit proxy measure of sense of agency. We tested how reduced agency under coercion related to differences in neural activity between free choice and coercion. In contrast to previous studies and to participants performing the task outside the MRI scanner, on average there was no effect of coercion on agency for participants in the scanner. However, greater activity in the medial frontal gyrus was reliably associated with greater agency under coercion. A similar association was found using explicit responsibility ratings. Our findings suggest that medial frontal processes, perhaps related to volition during action planning and execution, may help to preserve a sense of accountability under coercion. Further, participants who administered more shocks under free choice showed reduced activity during free choice trials in brain areas associated with social cognition. Possibly, this might reflect participants cognitively distancing themselves from the recipient of the shocks under free choice, whereas this was not observed under coercion.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/336827/1/doi_320471.pdf

 

HuGoS: a virtual environment for studying collective human behavior from a swarm intelligence perspective

Coucke, N., Heinrich, M. K., Cleeremans, A., & Dorigo, M. (2021). HuGoS: a virtual environment for studying collective human behavior from a swarm intelligence perspective. Swarm Intelligence, 15(4), 339-376. doi:10.1007/s11721-021-00199-1  

Swarm intelligence studies self-organized collective behavior resulting from interactions between individuals, typically in animals and artificial agents. Some studies from cognitive science have also demonstrated self-organization mechanisms in humans, often in pairs. Further research into the topic of human swarm intelligence could provide a better understanding of new behaviors and larger human collectives. This requires studies with multiple human participants in controlled experiments in a wide variety of scenarios, where a rich scope of possible interactions can be isolated and captured. In this paper, we present HuGoS—‘Humans Go Swarming'—a multi-user virtual environment implemented using the Unity game development platform, as a comprehensive tool for experimentation in human swarm intelligence. We demonstrate the functionality of HuGoS with naïve participants in a browser-based implementation, in a coordination task involving collective decision-making, messaging and signaling, and stigmergy. By making HuGoS available as open-source software, we hope to facilitate further research in the field of human swarm intelligence.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/331386/3/Coucke2021_Article_HuGoSAVirtualEnvironmentForStu.pdfhttps://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/331386/4/CouHeiCleDor2021si.pdf

 

The color phi phenomenon: Not so special, after all?

Keuninckx, L., & Cleeremans, A. (2021). The color phi phenomenon: Not so special, after all? PLoS computational biology, 17(9), e1009344. doi:10.1371/journal.pcbi.1009344  

We show how anomalous time reversal of stimuli and their associated responses can exist in very small connectionist models. These networks are built from dynamical toy model neurons which adhere to a minimal set of biologically plausible properties. The appearance of a “ghost” response, temporally and spatially located in between responses caused by actual stimuli, as in the phi phenomenon, is demonstrated in a similar small network, where it is caused by priming and long-distance feedforward paths. We then demonstrate that the color phi phenomenon can be present in an echo state network, a recurrent neural network, without explicitly training for the presence of the effect, such that it emerges as an artifact of the dynamical processing. Our results suggest that the color phi phenomenon might simply be a feature of the inherent dynamical and nonlinear sensory processing in the brain and in and of itself is not related to consciousness.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/332271/1/doi_315915.pdf

 

The Aha! moment: Is insight a different form of problem solving?

Stuyck, H., Aben, B., Cleeremans, A., & Van den Bussche, E. (2021). The Aha! moment: Is insight a different form of problem solving? Consciousness and cognition, 90, 103055. doi:10.1016/j.concog.2020.103055  

In everyday life, we mainly solve problems with a conscious solution search (non-insight). However, sometimes a perplexing problem is resolved by a quantum leap in understanding. This phenomenon is known as the Aha! experience (insight). Although insight has a distinct phenomenological and behavioral signature, its driving mechanism remains debated. Weisberg (2015) proposed an integrated theory of insight arguing that insight, like non-insight, mainly depends on conscious, cognitive operations with restructuring as a distinguishing feature of insight. However, only if those operations lead to an impasse, insight is achieved through unconscious processes. We assessed some of the premises of this theory by asking participants (N = 42) to solve 70 word puzzles (CRAT) that can either be solved with insight or non-insight. For each puzzle, participants indicated word puzzle difficulty, solution confidence, solution suddenness, and the experiences of impasse and restructuring. As expected, participants reported higher suddenness of and confidence in insight solutions than non-insightful ones. Surprisingly, we could not corroborate the otherwise consistently reported higher solution accuracy and faster solution speed for insight. Crucially, as suggested by the integrated theory of insight, impasse was not a prerequisite for insight to occur. Although restructuring, indeed, preceded insight solutions more often, it seemed a more general problem-solving skill also applied for non-insight solutions. Moreover, early on, participants reported an increased experience of problem difficulty for puzzles later solved with insight. This ability to report on the solution search of insight demonstrates that, as proposed by the theory, insight involves conscious, cognitive operations.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/321014/3/1-s2.0-S0010027721003693-main.pdf

 

Gilbert Hottois y la “Species Technica”

Missa, J.-N. (2021). Gilbert Hottois y la “Species Technica”. Revista colombiana de bioetica, 16(1), 1-19.  
https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/338034/3/Gilbert_Hottois_et_la_Species_Technica.pdf

 

How using brain-machine interfaces influences the human sense of agency

Caspar, E., de Beir, A., Lauwers, G., Cleeremans, A., & Vanderborght, B. (2021). How using brain-machine interfaces influences the human sense of agency. PloS one.  
https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/317232/3/Caspar.BCI.pdf

 

Neural evidence of mirror self-recognition in the secondary somatosensory cortex of macaque: Observations from a single-cell recording experiment and implications for consciousness

Bretas, R., Taoka, M., Hihara, S., Cleeremans, A., & Iriki, A. (2021). Neural evidence of mirror self-recognition in the secondary somatosensory cortex of macaque: Observations from a single-cell recording experiment and implications for consciousness. Brain sciences, 11(2), 157, 1-12. doi:10.3390/brainsci11020157  

Despite mirror self-recognition being regarded as a classical indication of self-awareness, little is known about its neural underpinnings. An increasing body of evidence pointing to a role of multimodal somatosensory neurons in self-recognition guided our investigation toward the secondary somatosensory cortex (SII), as we observed single-neuron activity from a macaque monkey sitting in front of a mirror. The monkey was previously habituated to the mirror, successfully acquiring the ability of mirror self-recognition. While the monkey underwent visual and somatosensory stimulation, multimodal visual and somatosensory activity was detected in the SII, with neurons found to respond to stimuli seen through the mirror. Responses were also modulated by self-related or non-self-related stimuli. These observations corroborate that vision is an important aspect of SII activity, with electrophysiological evidence of mirror self-recognition at the neuronal level, even when such an ability is not innate. We also show that the SII may be involved in distinguishing self and non-self. Together, these results point to the involvement of the SII in the establishment of bodily self-consciousness.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/320445/1/doi_304089.pdf

 

LIVE-streaming 3D images: A neuroscience approach to full-body illusions

de Boer, D., Namdar, F., Lambers, M., & Cleeremans, A. (2021). LIVE-streaming 3D images: A neuroscience approach to full-body illusions. Behavior Research Methods. doi:10.3758/s13428-021-01659-6  

Inspired by recent technological advances in the gaming industry, we used capture cards to create and LIVE-stream high quality 3D-images. With this novel technique, we developed a real-life stereoscopic 3D full-body illusion paradigm (3D projection). Unlike previous versions of the full-body illusion that rely upon unwieldy head-mounted displays, this paradigm enables the unobstructed investigation of such illusions with neuroscience methods (e.g., transcranial direct current stimulation, transcranial magnetic stimulation, electroencephalography, and near-infrared spectroscopy) and examination of their neural underpinnings. This paper has three aims: (i) to provide a step-by-step guide on how to implement 3D LIVE-streaming, (ii) to explain how this can be used to create a full-body illusion paradigm; and (iii) to present evidence that documents the effectiveness of our methods (de Boer et al., 2020), including suggestions for potential applications. Particularly significant is the fact that 3D LIVE-streaming is not GPU-intensive and can easily be applied to any device or screen that can display 3D images (e.g., TV, tablet, mobile phone). Therefore, these methods also have potential future clinical and commercial benefits. 3D LIVE-streaming could be used to enhance future clinical observations or educational tools, or potentially guide medical interventions with real-time high-quality 3D images. Alternatively, our methods can be used in future rehabilitation programs to aid recovery from nervous system injury (e.g., spinal cord injury, brain damage, limb loss) or in therapies aimed at alleviating psychosis symptoms. Finally, 3D LIVE-streaming could set a new standard for immersive online gaming as well as augmenting online and mobile experiences (e.g., video chat, social sharing/events).

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/333695/3/Boer2021_Article_LIVE-streaming3DImagesANeurosc.pdf

 

2020

The response relevance of visual stimuli modulates the P3 component and the underlying sensorimotor network

Asanowicz, D., Gociewicz, K., Koculak, M., Finc, K., Bonna, K., Cleeremans, A., & Binder, M. (2020). The response relevance of visual stimuli modulates the P3 component and the underlying sensorimotor network. Scientific reports, 10(1), 3818. doi:10.1038/s41598-020-60268-z  

The functional meaning and neural basis of the P3b component of ERPs are still under debate. One of the main issues is whether P3b reflects only stimulus-related processes (stimulus evaluation hypothesis) or response-related processes as well (stimulus-response or S-R link activation hypothesis). Here, we conducted an EEG experiment examining whether P3b may indeed reflect an S-R link activation, followed by an fMRI experiment in which we explored the brain areas and functional connectivity possibly constituting the neural basis of these sensorimotor links. In both experiments, two successive visual stimuli, S1 and S2, were presented with a 1 sec interval, and responses were defined either by S1 or S2, while participants responded only after S2 onset. The obtained EEG results suggest that P3b may be interpreted in terms of the S-R link activation account, although further studies are needed to disentangle P3-related activity from overlapping anticipatory activity. The obtained fMRI results showed that processing of the relevant S1 involved activation of a distributed postero-anterior sensorimotor network, and increased strength of functional connectivity within this network. This network may underlie activation of the S-R links, thus possibly also the P3b component, forming a bridging step between sensory encoding and response execution.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/308989/1/doi_292633.pdf

 

A causal role for the right angular gyrus in self-location mediated perspective taking

de Boer, D., Johnston, P. P., Kerr, G., Meinzer, M., & Cleeremans, A. (2020). A causal role for the right angular gyrus in self-location mediated perspective taking. Scientific reports, 10(1), 19229. doi:10.1038/s41598-020-76235-7  

Recent theories suggest that self-consciousness, in its most elementary form, is functionally disconnected from the phenomenal body. Patients with psychosis frequently misattribute their thoughts and actions to external sources; and in certain out-of-body experiences, lucid states, and dreams body-ownership is absent but self-identification is preserved. To explain these unusual experiences, we hypothesized that self-identification depends on inferring self-location at the right angular gyrus (i.e., perspective-taking). This process relates to the discrimination of self-produced signals (endogenous attention) from environmental stimulation (exogenous attention). Therefore, when this mechanism fails, this causes altered sensations and perceptions. We combined a Full-body Illusion paradigm with brain stimulation (HD-tDCS) and found a clear causal association between right angular gyrus activation and alterations in self-location (perspective-taking). Anodal versus sham HD-tDCS resulted in: a more profound out-of-body shift (with reduced sense of agency); and a weakened ability to discriminate self from other perspectives. We conclude that self-identification is mediated in the brain by inferring self-location (i.e., perspective-taking). Self-identification can be decoupled from the bodily self, explaining phenomena associated with disembodiment. These findings present novel insights into the relationship between mind and body, and may offer important future directions for treating psychosis symptoms and rehabilitation programs to aid in the recovery from a nervous system injury. The brain's ability to locate itself might be the key mechanism for self-identification and distinguishing self from other signals (i.e., perspective-taking).

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/315285/4/doi_298929.pdf

 

Delineating implicit and explicit processes in neurofeedback learning

Muñoz-Moldes, S., & Cleeremans, A. (2020). Delineating implicit and explicit processes in neurofeedback learning. Neuroscience and biobehavioral reviews, 118, 681-688. doi:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2020.09.003  

Neurofeedback allows humans to self-regulate neural activity in specific brain regions and is considered a promising tool for psychiatric interventions. Recently, methods have been developed to use neurofeedback implicitly, prompting a theoretical debate on the role of awareness in neurofeedback learning. We offer a critical review of the role of awareness in neurofeedback learning, with a special focus on recently developed neurofeedback paradigms. We detail differences in instructions and propose a fine-grained categorization of tasks based on the degree of involvement of explicit and implicit processes. Finally, we review the methods used to measure awareness in neurofeedback and propose new candidate measures. We conclude that explicit processes cannot be eschewed in most current implicit tasks that have explicit goals, and suggest ways in which awareness could be better measured in the future. Investigating awareness during learning will help understand the learning mechanisms underlying neurofeedback learning and will help shape future tasks.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/335293/1/doi_318937.pdf

 

HuGoS: A Multi-user Virtual Environment for Studying Human-Human Swarm Intelligence

Coucke, N., Heinrich, M. K., Cleeremans, A., & Dorigo, M. (2020). HuGoS: A Multi-user Virtual Environment for Studying Human-Human Swarm Intelligence. Lecture notes in computer science, 12421, 161-175. doi:10.1007/978-3-030-60376-2_13  

The research topic of human-human swam intelligence includes many mechanisms that need to be studied in controlled experiment conditions with multiple human subjects. Virtual environments are a useful tool to isolate specific human interactions for study, but current platforms support only a small scope of possible research areas. In this paper, we present HuGoS—‘Humans Go Swarming'—a multi-user virtual environment in Unity, as a comprehensive tool for experimentation in human-human swarm intelligence. We identify possible experiment classes for studying human collective behavior, and equip our virtual environment with sufficient features to support each of these experiment classes. We then demonstrate the functionality of the virtual environment in simple examples for three of the experiment classes: human collective decision making, human social learning strategies, and agent-level human interaction with artificial swarms, including robot swarms.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/314624/3/CouHeiCleDor2020ants_camera_ready.pdf

 

Do you need to be conscious to learn to be conscious?

Cleeremans, A., Achoui, D., Beauny, A., Keuninckx, L., Martin, J.-R., Muñoz-Moldes, S., Vuillaume, L., & De Heering, A. (2020). Do you need to be conscious to learn to be conscious? Trends in cognitive sciences, 25(1), 9-11. doi:10.1016/j.tics.2020.10.002  
https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/338438/3/Doyouneedtobeconscious.pdf

 

The effect of military training on the sense of agency and outcome processing

Caspar, E., Lo Bue, S., Magalhães De Saldanha da Gama, P. P., Haggard, P., & Cleeremans, A. (2020). The effect of military training on the sense of agency and outcome processing. Nature communications.  
https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/312217/3/Caspar_2020_Military.pdf

 

Unconscious categorization of sub-millisecond complex images

Beauny, A., De Heering, A., Muñoz Moldes, S., Martin, J.-R., Beir, A. D., Cleeremans, A., et al. (2020). Unconscious categorization of sub-millisecond complex images. PloS one, 15, 8. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0236467  

Can people categorize complex visual scenes unconsciously? The possibility of unconscious perception remains controversial. Here, we addressed this question using psychophysical methods applied to unmasked visual stimuli presented for extremely short durations (in the μsec range) by means of a custom-built modern tachistoscope. Our experiment was composed of two phases. In the first phase, natural or urban scenes were either absent or present (for varying durations) on the tachistoscope screen, and participants were simply asked to evaluate their subjective perception using a 3-points scale (absence of stimulus, stimulus detection or stimulus identification). Participants' responses were tracked by means of two staircases. The first psychometric function aimed at defining participants' proportion of subjective detection responses (i.e., not having seen anything vs. having seen something without being able to identify it), while the second staircase tracked the proportion of subjective identification rates (i.e., being unaware of the stimulus' category vs. being aware of it). In the second phase, the same participants performed an objective categorization task in which they had to decide, on each trial, whether the image was a natural vs. an urban scene. A third staircase was used in this phase so as to build a psychometric curve reflecting the objective categorization performance of each participant. In this second phase, participants also rated their subjective perception of each stimulus on every trial, exactly as in the first phase of the experiment. Our main result is that objective categorization performance, here assumed to reflect the contribution of both conscious and unconscious trials, cannot be explained based exclusively on conscious trials. This clearly suggests that the categorization of complex visual scenes is possible even when participants report being unable to consciously perceive the contents of the stimulus.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/313210/5/pone.0236467.s001.docx

 

Project DyAdd: Non-linguistic Theories of Dyslexia Predict Intelligence

Laasonen, M., Lahti-Nuuttila, P., Leppämäki, S., Tani, P., Wikgren, J., Harno, H., Oksanen-Hennah, H., Pothos, E., Cleeremans, A., Dye, M. M., Cousineau, D., & Hokkanen, L. (2020). Project DyAdd: Non-linguistic Theories of Dyslexia Predict Intelligence. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 14, 316. doi:10.3389/fnhum.2020.00316  

Two themes have puzzled the research on developmental and learning disorders for decades. First, some of the risk and protective factors behind developmental challenges are suggested to be shared and some are suggested to be specific for a given condition. Second, language-based learning difficulties like dyslexia are suggested to result from or correlate with non-linguistic aspects of information processing as well. In the current study, we investigated how adults with developmental dyslexia or ADHD as well as healthy controls cluster across various dimensions designed to tap the prominent non-linguistic theories of dyslexia. Participants were 18-55-year-old adults with dyslexia (n = 36), ADHD (n = 22), and controls (n = 35). Non-linguistic theories investigated with experimental designs included temporal processing impairment, abnormal cerebellar functioning, procedural learning difficulties, as well as visual processing and attention deficits. Latent profile analysis (LPA) was used to investigate the emerging groups and patterns of results across these experimental designs. LPA suggested three groups: (1) a large group with average performance in the experimental designs, (2) participants predominantly from the clinical groups but with enhanced conditioning learning, and (3) participants predominantly from the dyslexia group with temporal processing as well as visual processing and attention deficits. Despite the presence of these distinct patterns, participants did not cluster very well based on their original status, nor did the LPA groups differ in their dyslexia or ADHD-related neuropsychological profiles. Remarkably, the LPA groups did differ in their intelligence. These results highlight the continuous and overlapping nature of the observed difficulties and support the multiple deficit model of developmental disorders, which suggests shared risk factors for developmental challenges. It also appears that some of the risk factors suggested by the prominent non-linguistic theories of dyslexia relate to the general level of functioning in tests of intelligence.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/312994/1/doi_296638.pdf

 

The SSVEP tool as a marker of subjective visibility

De Heering, A., Beauny, A., Vuillaume, L., Salvesen, L., & Cleeremans, A. (2020). The SSVEP tool as a marker of subjective visibility. BioRxiv.  
https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/308418/3/BiorXiv_588236v1.full.pdf

 

Snakes elicit specific neural responses in the human infant brain

Bertels, J., Bourguignon, M., De Heering, A., Chetail, F., De Tiege, X., Cleeremans, A., & Destrebecqz, A. (2020). Snakes elicit specific neural responses in the human infant brain. Scientific Reports, 10, 7443. doi:10.1038/s41598-020-63619-y  

Detecting predators is essential for survival. Given that snakes are the first of primates' major predators, natural selection may have fostered efficient snake detection mechanisms to allow for optimal defensive behavior. Here, we provide electrophysiological evidence for a brain-anchored evolved predisposition to rapidly detect snakes in humans, which does not depend on previous exposure or knowledge about snakes. To do so, we recorded scalp electrical brain activity in 7- to 10-month-old infants watching sequences of flickering animal pictures. All animals were presented in their natural background. We showed that glancing at snakes generates specific neural responses in the infant brain, that are higher in amplitude than those generated by frogs or caterpillars, especially in the occipital region of the brain. The temporal dynamics of these neural responses support that infants devote increased attention to snakes than to non-snake stimuli. These results therefore demonstrate that a single fixation at snakes is sufficient to generate a prompt and large selective response in the infant brain. They argue for the existence in humans of an inborn, brain-anchored mechanism to swiftly detect snakes based on their characteristic visual features.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/305689/1/doi_289333.pdf

 

Comparing self- and hetero- metacognition in the absence of verbal communication

Vuillaume, L., Martin, J.-R., Sackur, J., & Cleeremans, A. (2020). Comparing self- and hetero- metacognition in the absence of verbal communication. PloS one, 15, e0231530. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0231530  

The ability to infer how confident other people are in their decisions is crucial for regulating social interactions. In many cooperative situations, verbal communication enables one to communicate one's confidence and to appraise that of others. However, in many circumstances, people either cannot explicitly communicate their confidence level (e.g., in an emergency situation) or may be intentionally deceitful (e.g., when playing poker). It is currently unclear whether one can read others' confidence in the absence of verbal communication, and whether one can infer it as accurately as for one's own confidence. To explore these questions, we used an auditory task in which participants either had to guess the confidence of someone else performing the task or to judge their own confidence, in different conditions (i.e., while performing the task themselves or while watching themselves perform the task on a pre-recorded video). Results demonstrate that people can read the confidence someone else has in their decision as accurately as they evaluate their own uncertainty in their decision. Crucially, we show that hetero-metacognition is a flexible mechanism that relies on different cues according to the context. Our results support the idea that metacognition leverages the same inference mechanisms as those involved in theory of mind.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/305690/1/doi_289334.pdf

 

Comparing self- and hetero-metacognition in the absence of verbal communication

Martin, J.-R., Sackur, J., & Cleeremans, A. (2020). Comparing self- and hetero-metacognition in the absence of verbal communication. PloS one, 15(4), e0231530. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0231530  

The ability to infer how confident other people are in their decisions is crucial for regulating social interactions. In many cooperative situations, verbal communication enables one to communicate one's confidence and to appraise that of others. However, in many circumstances, people either cannot explicitly communicate their confidence level (e.g., in an emergency situation) or may be intentionally deceitful (e.g., when playing poker). It is currently unclear whether one can read others' confidence in the absence of verbal communication, and whether one can infer it as accurately as for one's own confidence. To explore these questions, we used an auditory task in which participants either had to guess the confidence of someone else performing the task or to judge their own confidence, in different conditions (i.e., while performing the task themselves or while watching themselves perform the task on a pre-recorded video). Results demonstrate that people can read the confidence someone else has in their decision as accurately as they evaluate their own uncertainty in their decision. Crucially, we show that hetero-metacognition is a flexible mechanism that relies on different cues according to the context. Our results support the idea that metacognition leverages the same inference mechanisms as those involved in theory of mind.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/313617/3/doi_297261.pdf

 

The response relevance of visual stimuli modulate the P3 component and the underlying sensorimotor network

Asanowicz, D., Gociewicz, K., Koculak, M., Finc, K., Bonna, K., & Cleeremans, A. (2020). The response relevance of visual stimuli modulate the P3 component and the underlying sensorimotor network. Scientific Reports, 10, 3818. doi:10.1038/s41598-020-60268-z  

The functional meaning and neural basis of the P3b component of ERPs are still under debate. One of the main issues is whether P3b reflects only stimulus-related processes (stimulus evaluation hypothesis) or response-related processes as well (stimulus-response or S-R link activation hypothesis). Here, we conducted an EEG experiment examining whether P3b may indeed reflect an S-R link activation, followed by an fMRI experiment in which we explored the brain areas and functional connectivity possibly constituting the neural basis of these sensorimotor links. In both experiments, two successive visual stimuli, S1 and S2, were presented with a 1 sec interval, and responses were defined either by S1 or S2, while participants responded only after S2 onset. The obtained EEG results suggest that P3b may be interpreted in terms of the S-R link activation account, although further studies are needed to disentangle P3-related activity from overlapping anticipatory activity. The obtained fMRI results showed that processing of the relevant S1 involved activation of a distributed postero-anterior sensorimotor network, and increased strength of functional connectivity within this network. This network may underlie activation of the S-R links, thus possibly also the P3b component, forming a bridging step between sensory encoding and response execution.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/305691/1/doi_289335.pdf

 

Sensorimotor conflicts alter metacognitive and action monitoring

Faivre, N., Vuillaume, L., Bernasconi, F., Salomon, R., Blanke, O., & Cleeremans, A. (2020). Sensorimotor conflicts alter metacognitive and action monitoring. Cortex, 124, 224-234. doi:10.1016/j.cortex.2019.12.001  

While sensorimotor signals are known to modulate perception, little is known about their influence on higher-level cognitive processes. Here, we applied sensorimotor conflicts while participants performed a perceptual task followed by confidence judgments. Results showed that sensorimotor conflicts altered metacognitive monitoring by decreasing metacognitive performance. In a second experiment, we replicated this finding and extended our results by showing that sensorimotor conflicts also altered action monitoring, as measured implicitly through intentional binding. In a third experiment, we replicated the same effects on intentional binding with sensorimotor conflicts related to the hand rather than to the trunk. However, effects of hand sensorimotor conflicts on metacognitive monitoring were not significant. Taken together, our results suggest that metacognitive and action monitoring may involve endogenous, embodied processes involving sensorimotor signals which are informative regarding the state of the decider.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/305696/3/MetaFOPpaper_final_revised.pdf

 

Action information contributes to metacognitive decision-making

Wokke, M., Achoui, D., & Cleeremans, A. (2020). Action information contributes to metacognitive decision-making. Scientific reports, 10(1), 3632. doi:10.1038/s41598-020-60382-y  

Metacognitive abilities allow us to adjust ongoing behavior and modify future decisions in the absence of external feedback. Although metacognition is critical in many daily life settings, it remains unclear what information is actually being monitored and what kind of information is being used for metacognitive decisions. In the present study, we investigated whether response information connected to perceptual events contribute to metacognitive decision-making. Therefore, we recorded EEG signals during a perceptual color discrimination task while participants were asked to provide an estimate about the quality of their decision on each trial. Critically, the moment participants provided their confidence judgments varied across conditions, thereby changing the amount of action information (e.g., response competition or response fluency) available for metacognitive decisions. Results from three experiments demonstrate that metacognitive performance improved when first-order action information was available at the moment metacognitive decisions about the perceptual task had to be provided. This behavioral effect was accompanied by enhanced functional connectivity (beta phase synchrony) between motor areas and prefrontal regions, exclusively observed during metacognitive decision-making. Our findings demonstrate that action information contributes to metacognitive decision-making, thereby painting a picture of metacognition as a process that integrates sensory evidence and information about our interactions with the world.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/304992/1/doi_288636.pdf

 

Learning to be conscious

Cleeremans, A., Achoui, D., Beauny, A., Keuninckx, L., Martin, J.-R., Muñoz Moldes, S., Vuillaume, L., & De Heering, A. (2020). Learning to be conscious. Trends in cognitive sciences, 24(2), 112-123. doi:10.1016/j.tics.2019.11.011  

Consciousness remains a formidable challenge. Different theories of consciousness have proposed vastly different mechanisms to account for phenomenal experience. Here, appealing to aspects of global workspace theory, higher-order theories, social theories, and predictive processing, we introduce a novel framework: the self-organizing metarerpresentational account (SOMA), in which consciousness is viewed as something that the brain learns to do. By this account, the brain continuously and unconsciously learns to redescribe its own activity to itself, so developing systems of metarepresentations that qualify target first-order representations. Thus, experiences only occur in experiencers that have learned to know they possess certain first-order states and that have learned to care more about certain states than about others. In this sense, consciousness is the brain's (unconscious, embodied, enactive, nonconceptual) theory about itself.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/302003/3/TiCSpreprint.pdf

 

2019

Saving the Perruchet effect: A role for the strength of the association in associative learning

Destrebecqz, A., Vande Velde, M., San Anton, E., Cleeremans, A., & Bertels, J. (2019). Saving the Perruchet effect: A role for the strength of the association in associative learning. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 72(6), 1379-1386. doi:10.1177/1747021818791079  

In a partial reinforcement schedule where a cue repeatedly predicts the occurrence of a target in consecutive trials, reaction times to the target tend to decrease in a monotonic fashion, while participants' expectancies for the target decrease at the same time. This dissociation between reaction times and expectancies—the so-called Perruchet effect—challenges the propositional view of learning, which posits that human conditioned responses result from conscious inferences about the relationships between events. However, whether the reaction time pattern reflects the strength of a putative cue-target link, or only non-associative processes, such as motor priming, remains unclear. To address this issue, we implemented the Perruchet procedure in a two-choice reaction time task and compared reaction time patterns in an Experimental condition, in which a tone systematically preceded a visual target, and in a Control condition, in which the onset of the two stimuli were uncoupled. Participants' expectancies regarding the target were recorded separately in an initial block. Reaction times decreased with the succession of identical trials in both conditions, reflecting the impact of motor priming. Importantly, reaction time slopes were steeper in the Experimental than in the Control condition, indicating an additional influence of the associative strength between the two stimuli. Interestingly, slopes were less steep for participants who showed the gambler's fallacy in the initial block. In sum, our results suggest the mutual influences of motor priming, associative strength, and expectancies on performance. They are in line with a dual-process model of learning involving both a propositional reasoning process and an automatic link-formation mechanism.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/278798/3/Destrebecqzetal2019.pdf

 

Lower Attentional Skills predict increased exploratory foraging patterns

Vandendriessche, C., Chevrier, F., Cleeremans, A., & Sackur, J. (2019). Lower Attentional Skills predict increased exploratory foraging patterns. Scientific reports, 9(1), 10948. doi:10.1038/s41598-019-46761-0  

When engaged in a search task, one needs to arbitrate between exploring and exploiting the environment to optimize the outcome. Many intrinsic, task and environmental factors are known to influence the exploration/exploitation balance. Here, in a non clinical population, we show that the level of inattention (assessed as a trait) is one such factor: children with higher scores on an ADHD (Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder) questionnaire exhibited longer transitions between consecutively retrieved items, in both a visual and a semantic search task. These more frequent exploration behaviours were associated with differential performance patterns: children with higher levels of ADHD traits performed better in semantic search, while their performance was unaffected in visual search. Our results contribute to the growing literature suggesting that ADHD should not be simply conceived as a pure deficit of attention, but also as a specific cognitive strategy that may prove beneficial in some contexts.

 

Intentional binding as Bayesian cue combination: Testing predictions with trait individual differences

Lush, P., Roseboom, W., Cleeremans, A., Scott, R., Seth, A. K., & Dienes, Z. (2019). Intentional binding as Bayesian cue combination: Testing predictions with trait individual differences. Journal of experimental psychology. Human perception and performance, 45(9), 1206-1217. doi:10.1037/xhp0000661  

We investigated differences in intentional binding in high and low hypnotizable groups to explore two questions relating to (a) trait differences in the availability of motor intentions to metacognitive processes and (b) a proposed cue combination model of binding. An experience of involuntariness is central to hypnotic responding and may arise from strategically being unaware of one's intentions. Trait differences in the ability to respond to hypnotic suggestion may reflect differing levels of access to motor intentions. Intentional binding refers to the subjective compression of the time between an action and its outcome, indicated by a forward shift in the judged time of an action toward its outcome (action binding) and the backward shift of an outcome toward a causal action (outcome binding). Intentional binding is sensitive to intentional action without requiring explicit reflection upon agency. One way of explaining the sensitivity of intentional binding is to see it as a simple case of multisensory cue combination in which awareness of intentions increases knowledge of the timing of actions. Here we present results consistent with such a mechanism. In a contingent presentation of action and outcome events, low hypnotizable had more precise timing judgments of actions and also showed weaker action binding than highs. These results support the theory that trait hypnotizability is related to access to information related to motor intentions, and that intentional binding reflects the Bayesian combination of cross-modal cues.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/297038/3/LUSH2019.pdf

 

The role of levels of processing in disentangling the ERP signatures of conscious visual processing

Derda, M., Koculak, M., Windey, B., Gociewicz, K., Wierzchoń, M., Cleeremans, A., & Binder, M. (2019). The role of levels of processing in disentangling the ERP signatures of conscious visual processing. Consciousness and cognition, 73, 102767. doi:10.1016/j.concog.2019.102767  

We aimed to distinguish electrophysiological signatures of visual awareness from other task-related processes through manipulating the level of processing of visual stimuli. During an event-related EEG experiment, 36 subjects performed either color (low-level condition) or magnitude (high-level condition) evaluations of masked digits. Participants also assessed subjective visibility of each stimulus using the Perceptual Awareness Scale (PAS). Mean amplitude of the components of interest was analyzed (VAN − 140-240 ms; LP − 380-480 ms) with weighted regression mixed model. In the VAN component time window the mean amplitude correlated with PAS rating in both conditions. Mean amplitude in the LP time window correlated with PAS ratings in the high-level condition, but not in the low-level condition. Our results support the temporal unfolding of ERP makers of conscious processing, with an early component reflecting the initial perceptual experience and a late component being a correlate of the conscious experience of non-perceptual information.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/291271/1/Elsevier_274898.pdf

 

Should we control? The interplay between cognitive control and information integration in the resolution of the exploration-exploitation dilemma

Cogliati Dezza, I., Cleeremans, A., & Alexander, W. (2019). Should we control? The interplay between cognitive control and information integration in the resolution of the exploration-exploitation dilemma. Journal of experimental psychology. General, 148(6), 977-993. doi:10.1037/xge0000546  

In their daily decisions, humans and animals are often confronted with the conflicting choice of opting either for a rewarding familiar option (i.e., exploitation) or for a novel, uncertain option that may, however, yield a better reward in the near future (i.e., exploration). Despite extensive research, the cognitive mechanisms that subtend the manner in which humans solve this exploration-exploitation dilemma are still poorly understood. In this study, we challenge the popular assumption that exploitation is a global default strategy that must be suppressed by means of cognitive control mechanisms so as to enable exploratory strategies. To do so, we asked participants to engage in a challenging working memory task while performing repeated choices in a gambling task. Results showed that manipulating cognitive control resources exclusively hindered participants' ability to explore the environment in a directed, intentional manner. Moreover, under certain scenarios, adopting exploitative strategies was also dependent on the availability of cognitive control resources. Additional analyses using a recent computational model of information integration suggests that increasing cognitive load specifically interferes with the ability to combine reward and information in order to inform choices. Our results shed light on the cognitive mechanisms that underpin the resolution of the dilemma and provide a formal foundation through which to explore pathologies of goal-directed behavior.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/290136/4/Cogliatietal.2019.pdf

 

Opportunities and challenges for a maturing science of consciousness

Michel, M., & Cleeremans, A. (2019). Opportunities and challenges for a maturing science of consciousness. Nature Human Behaviour, 3(2), 104-107. doi:10.1038/s41562-019-0531-8  

Scientific research on consciousness is critical to multiple scientific, clinical, and ethical issues. The growth of the field could also be beneficial to several areas including neurology and mental health research. To achieve this goal, we need to set funding priorities carefully and address problems such as job creation and potential media misrepresentation.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/290211/4/NHBMicheletal..pdf

 

Consciousness (Unconsciously) designs itself

Cleeremans, A. (2019). Consciousness (Unconsciously) designs itself. Journal of consciousness studies, 26(3-4), 88-111.  

Here, I explore the idea that consciousness is something that the brain learns to do rather than an intrinsic property of certain neural states and not others. Starting from the assumption that neural activity is inherently unconscious, the question thus becomes: How does the brain learn to be conscious? I suggest that consciousness arises as a result of the brain's continuous attempts at predicting not only the consequences of its actions on the world and on other agents, but also the consequences of activity in one cerebral region on activity in other regions. By this account, the brain continuously and unconsciously learns to redescribe its own activity to itself, so developing systems of metarepresentations that characterize and qualify the target first-order representations. Such learned redescriptions, enriched by the emotional value associated with them, form the basis of conscious experience. Learning and plasticity are thus central to consciousness, to the extent that experiences only occur in experiencers that have learned to know they possess certain first-order states and have learned to care more about certain states than others. This is what I call the ‘radical plasticity thesis'. In a sense, thus, this is the enactive perspective, but turned both inwards and (further) outwards. Consciousness involves ‘signal detection on the mind'; the conscious mind is the brain's (non-conceptual, implicit) theory about itself.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/289751/3/DM_2017_paper_17.pdfhttps://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/289751/4/DM_2017_paper_17.pdf

 

Waving goodbye to contrast: Self-generated hand movements attenuate visual sensitivity

Vasser, M. M., Vuillaume, L., Cleeremans, A., & Aru, J. J. (2019). Waving goodbye to contrast: Self-generated hand movements attenuate visual sensitivity. Neuroscience of consciousness, 2019(1), niy013. doi:10.1093/nc/niy013  

It is well known that the human brain continuously predicts the sensory consequences of its own body movements, which typically results in sensory attenuation. Yet, the extent and exact mechanisms underlying sensory attenuation are still debated. To explore this issue, we asked participants to decide which of two visual stimuli was of higher contrast in a virtual reality situation where one of the stimuli could appear behind the participants' invisible moving hand or not. Over two experiments, we measured the effects of such virtual occlusion on first-order sensitivity and on metacognitive monitoring. Our findings show that self-generated hand movements reduced the apparent contrast of the stimulus. This result can be explained by the active inference theory. Moreover, sensory attenuation seemed to affect only first-order sensitivity and not (second-order) metacognitive judgments of confidence.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/296625/1/doi_280269.pdf

 

2018

Sensorimotor conflicts alter metacognitive and action monitoring

Faivre, N., Vuillaume, L., Bernasconi, F., Salomon, R., Blanke, O., & Cleeremans, A. (2018). Sensorimotor conflicts alter metacognitive and action monitoring. Cortex, 124, 224-234. doi:10.1016/j.cortex.2019.12.001  

While sensorimotor signals are known to modulate perception, little is known about their influence on higher-level cognitive processes. Here, we applied sensorimotor conflicts while participants performed a perceptual task followed by confidence judgments. Results showed that sensorimotor conflicts altered metacognitive monitoring by decreasing metacognitive performance. In a second experiment, we replicated this finding and extended our results by showing that sensorimotor conflicts also altered action monitoring, as measured implicitly through intentional binding. In a third experiment, we replicated the same effects on intentional binding with sensorimotor conflicts related to the hand rather than to the trunk. However, effects of hand sensorimotor conflicts on metacognitive monitoring were not significant. Taken together, our results suggest that metacognitive and action monitoring may involve endogenous, embodied processes involving sensorimotor signals which are informative regarding the state of the decider.

 

Does immersion or detachment facilitate healthy eating?

Chang, B., Mulders, M. D., Cserjesi, R., Cleeremans, A., & Klein, O. (2018). Does immersion or detachment facilitate healthy eating?: Comparing the effects of sensory imagery and mindful decentering on attitudes and behavior towards healthy and unhealthy food. Appetite, 130. doi:10.1016/j.appet.2018.08.013  

Many people would like to reduce indulging in unhealthy foods, but find it difficult to do so. Previous research shows that individuals eat smaller portions of unhealthy hedonic food if they first imagine the sensory properties of tempting food (sensory imagery; Cornil & Chandon, 2016). Similarly, they show less preference for such food if they think about food in a detached way (decentering; Papies, Barsalou, & Custers, 2012; Papies, Pronk, Keesman, & Barsalou, 2015). Given that these two mindsets are seemingly at odds with each other, we compared them across two studies to examine their effects on the preference for (Experiment 1) and consumption of (Experiment 2) hedonic healthy and unhealthy food. Although sensory imagery and decentering had largely different effects for preferences towards healthy and unhealthy foods, they had comparable effects on the consumption of both types of foods, serving to reduce the effects of consumption in participants affected by hunger and emotional eating. These results suggest that while sensory imagery and decentering are based on different mechanisms, they produce similar results when it comes to the consumption of hedonic food, regardless of how healthy the food is.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/275665/5/Chang_Mulders_Cleeremans_Klein.pdf

 

Spontaneous eyeblinks are sensitive to sequential learning.

San Anton, E., Cleeremans, A., Destrebecqz, A., Peigneux, P., & Schmitz, R. (2018). Spontaneous eyeblinks are sensitive to sequential learning. Neuropsychologia. doi:10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2018.09.007  

Although sequential learning and spontaneous eyeblink rate (EBR) have both been shown to be tightly related to cerebral dopaminergic activity, they have never been investigated at the same time. In the present study, EBR, taken as an indirect marker of dopaminergic activity, was investigated in two resting state conditions, both before and after visuomotor sequence learning in a serial reaction time task (SRT) and during task practice. Participants' abilities to produce and manipulate their knowledge about the sequential material were probed in a generation task. We hypothesized that the time course of spontaneous EBR might follow the progressive decrease of RTs during the SRT session. Additionally, we manipulated the structure of the transfer blocks as well as their respective order, assuming that (1) fully random trials might generate a larger psychophysiological response than an unlearned but structured material, and (2) a second (final) block of transfer might give rise to larger effects given that the sequential material was better consolidated after further practice. Finally, we tentatively hypothesized that, in addition to their online version, spontaneous EBR recorded during the pre- and post-learning resting sessions might be predictive of (1) the SRT learning curve, (2) the magnitude of the transfer effects, and (3) performance in the generation task. Results showed successful sequence learning with decreased accuracy and increased reaction times (RTs) in transfer blocks featuring a different material (random trials or a structured, novel sequence). In line with our hypothesis that EBR reflects dopaminergic activity associated with sequential learning, we observed increased EBR in random trials as well as when the second transfer block occurred at the end of the learning session. There was a positive relationship between the learning curve (RTs) and the slope of EBR during the SRT session. Additionally, inter-individual differences in resting and real-time EBR predicted the magnitude of accuracy and RTs transfer effects, respectively, but they were not related to participants' performances during the generation task. Notwithstanding, our results suggest that the degree of explicit sequential knowledge modulates the association between the magnitude of the transfer effect in EBR and SRT performance. Overall, the present study provides evidence that EBR may represent a valid indirect psychophysiological correlate of dopaminergic activity coupled to sequential learning.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/277243/5/PREPRINT_ESTI.pdf

 

Only giving orders? An experimental study of the sense of agency when giving or receiving commands

Caspar, E., Cleeremans, A., & Haggard, P. (2018). Only giving orders? An experimental study of the sense of agency when giving or receiving commands. PloS one. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0204027  

In human societies, agents are assumed to experience being the author of their own actions. These basic motoric experiences of action are influenced by social hierarchies, leading to surprising and morally significant results. Here we ask whether, under coercion, the sense of agency and responsibility pass from the person who receives orders to the person who gives them. Volunteers took turns to play the roles of ‘commander', ‘agent' or ‘victim' in a task where the commander coerced the agent to deliver painful shocks to the ‘victim'. We used ‘intentional binding' as an implicit measure of sense of agency in both commanders and agents, in conditions of coercion and free-choice. We observed a reduced sense of agency when agents received coercive instructions, relative to when they freely chose which action to execute. We also found that sense of agency in the commanders was reduced when they coerced agents to administer the shock on their behalf, relative to when they acted by themselves. This last effect was associated with the commander's self-reported level on a psychopathy scale. Thus, coercion resulted in neither commander nor agent feeling agency for the effect of the action, as measured through implicit methods. Our results could have profound implications for social decision-making and social regulation of moral behaviour.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/277256/4/doi_260883.pdf

 

The impact of sleep deprivation on visual perspective taking.

Deliens, G., Bukowski, H., Slama, H., Surtees, A., Cleeremans, A., Samson, D., & Peigneux, P. (2018). The impact of sleep deprivation on visual perspective taking. Journal of sleep research, 27(2), 175-183. doi:10.1111/jsr.12595  

Total sleep deprivation (TSD) is known to alter cognitive processes. Surprisingly little attention has been paid to its impact on social cognition. Here, we investigated whether TSD alters levels-1 and -2 visual perspective-taking abilities, i.e. the capacity to infer (a) what can be seen and (b) how it is seen from another person's visual perspective, respectively. Participants completed levels-1 and -2 visual perspective-taking tasks after a night of sleep and after a night of TSD. In these tasks, participants had to take their own (self trials) or someone else's (other trials) visual perspective in trials where both perspectives were either the same (consistent trials) or different (inconsistent trials). An instruction preceding each trial indicated the perspective to take (i.e. the relevant perspective). Results show that TSD globally deteriorates social performance. In the level-1 task, TSD affects the selection of relevant over irrelevant perspectives. In the level-2 task, the effect of TSD cannot be unequivocally explained. This implies that visual perspective taking should be viewed as partially state-dependent, rather than a wholly static trait-like characteristic.

 

Erratum: Publisher Correction: Learning the value of information and reward over time when solving exploration-exploitation problems (Scientific reports (2017) 7 1 (16919))

Cogliati Dezza, I., Yu, A. J., Cleeremans, A., & Alexander, W. (2018). Erratum: Publisher Correction: Learning the value of information and reward over time when solving exploration-exploitation problems (Scientific reports (2017) 7 1 (16919)). Scientific reports, 8(1), 4312. doi:10.1038/s41598-018-22685-z  

A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML and PDF versions of this paper. The error has been fixed in the paper.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/292466/1/doi_276093.pdf

 

Registered Replication Report: Dijksterhuis & van Knippenberg (1998)

O'Donnell, M., Nelson, L., Cleeremans, A., Eberlen, J., Klein, O., Simons, D. J., Van der Linden, N., et al. (2018). Registered Replication Report: Dijksterhuis & van Knippenberg (1998). Perspectives on Psychological Science, 13, 268-294. doi:10.1177/1745691618755704  

Dijksterhuis and van Knippenberg (1998) reported that participants primed with an intelligentcategory (“professor”) subsequently performed 13.1% better on a trivia test than participantsprimed with an unintelligent category (“soccer hooligans”). Two unpublished replications of thisstudy by the original authors, designed to verify the appropriate testing procedures, observed asmaller difference between conditions (2-3%) as well as a gender difference: men showed theeffect (9.3% and 7.6%) but women did not (0.3% and -0.3%). The procedure used in thosereplications served as the basis for this multi-lab Registered Replication Report (RRR). A total of40 laboratories collected data for this project, with 23 laboratories meeting all inclusion criteria.Here we report the meta-analytic result of those 23 direct replications (total N = 4,493) of theupdated version of the original study, examining the difference between priming with professorand hooligan on a 30-item general knowledge trivia task (a supplementary analysis reportsresults with all 40 labs, N = 6,454). We observed no overall difference in trivia performancebetween participants primed with professor and those primed with hooligan (0.14%) and nomoderation by gender.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/265009/3/ODonnellReg.pdf

 

La revalidation neuropsychologique : Quid de la réalité virtuelle ?

Camara Lopez, M., & Cleeremans, A. (2018). La revalidation neuropsychologique : Quid de la réalité virtuelle ? Rééducation orthophonique, 2(275), 3, 291-313.  
https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/356463/3/CamaraLopez2018.pdf

 

Reversible Second­Order Conditional sequences in Incidental Sequence Learning tasks

Pasquali, A., Cleeremans, A., & Gaillard, V. (2018). Reversible Second­Order Conditional sequences in Incidental Sequence Learning tasks. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology. doi:10.1177/1747021818780690  

In sequence learning tasks, participants' sensitivity to the sequential structure of a series of events often overshoots their ability to express relevant knowledge intentionally, as in generation tasks that require participants to produce either the next element of a sequence (inclusion) or a different element (exclusion). Comparing generation performance under inclusion and exclusion conditions makes it possible to assess the respective influences of conscious and unconscious learning. Recently, two main concerns have been expressed concerning such tasks. First, it is often difficult to design control sequences in such a way that they enable clear comparisons with the training material. Second, it is challenging to ask participants to perform appropriately under exclusion instructions, for the requirement to exclude familiar responses often leads them to adopt degenerate strategies (e.g., pushing on the same key all the time), which then need to be specifically singled out as invalid. To overcome both concerns, we introduce reversible second-order conditional (RSOC) sequences and show (a) that they elicit particularly strong transfer effects, (b) that dissociation of implicit and explicit influences becomes possible thanks to the removal of salient transitions in RSOCs, and (c) that exclusion instructions can be greatly simplified without losing sensitivity.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/246357/3/2018-Pasquali_et_al.pdf

 

Social Cues Alter Implicit Motor Learning in a Serial Reaction Time Task

Geiger, A., Cleeremans, A., Bente, G., & Vogeley, K. (2018). Social Cues Alter Implicit Motor Learning in a Serial Reaction Time Task. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 12. doi:10.3389/fnhum.2018.00197  

Learning is a central ability for human development. Many skills we learn, such as language, are learned through observation or imitation in social contexts. Likewise, many skills are learned implicitly, that is, without an explicit intent to learn and without full awareness of the acquired knowledge. Here, we asked whether performance in a motor learning task is modulated by social vs. object cues of varying validity. To address this question, we asked participants to carry out a serial reaction time (SRT) task in which, on each trial, people have to respond as fast and as accurately as possible to the appearance of a stimulus at one of four possible locations. Unbeknownst to participants, the sequence of successive locations was sequentially structured, so that knowledge of the sequence facilitates anticipation of the next stimulus and hence faster motor responses. Crucially, each trial also contained a cue pointing to the next stimulus location. Participants could thus learn based on the cue, or on learning about the sequence of successive locations, or on a combination of both. Results show an interaction between cue type and cue validity for the motor responses: social cues (vs. object cues) led to faster responses in the low validity (LV) condition only. Concerning the extent to which learning was implicit, results show that in the cued blocks only, the highly valid social cue led to implicit learning. In the uncued blocks, participants showed no implicit learning in the highly valid social cue condition, but did in all other combinations of stimulus type and cueing validity. In conclusion, our results suggest that implicit learning is context-dependent and can be influenced by the cue type, e.g., social and object cues.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/278802/3/doi_262429.pdf

 

2017

Learning the value of information and reward over time when solving exploration-exploitation problems.

Cogliati Dezza, I., Yu, A. J., Cleeremans, A., & Alexander, W. (2017). Learning the value of information and reward over time when solving exploration-exploitation problems. Scientific reports, 7(1), 16919. doi:10.1038/s41598-017-17237-w  

To flexibly adapt to the demands of their environment, animals are constantly exposed to the conflict resulting from having to choose between predictably rewarding familiar options (exploitation) and risky novel options, the value of which essentially consists of obtaining new information about the space of possible rewards (exploration). Despite extensive research, the mechanisms that subtend the manner in which animals solve this exploitation-exploration dilemma are still poorly understood. Here, we investigate human decision-making in a gambling task in which the informational value of each trial and the reward potential were separately manipulated. To better characterize the mechanisms that underlined the observed behavioural choices, we introduce a computational model that augments the standard reward-based reinforcement learning formulation by associating a value to information. We find that both reward and information gained during learning influence the balance between exploitation and exploration, and that this influence was dependent on the reward context. Our results shed light on the mechanisms that underpin decision-making under uncertainty, and suggest new approaches for investigating the exploration-exploitation dilemma throughout the animal kingdom.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/262260/4/doi_245887.pdf

 

The levels of perceptual processing and the neural correlates of increasing subjective visibility

Binder, M., Gociewicz, K., Windey, B., Koculak, M., Finc, K., Nikadon, J., Derda, M., & Cleeremans, A. (2017). The levels of perceptual processing and the neural correlates of increasing subjective visibility. Consciousness and cognition, 55, 106-125. doi:10.1016/j.concog.2017.07.010  

According to the levels-of-processing hypothesis, transitions from unconscious to conscious perception may depend on stimulus processing level, with more gradual changes for low-level stimuli and more dichotomous changes for high-level stimuli. In an event-related fMRI study we explored this hypothesis using a visual backward masking procedure. Task requirements ma- nipulated level of processing. Participants reported the magnitude of the target digit in the high- level task, its color in the low-level task, and rated subjective visibility of stimuli using the Perceptual Awareness Scale. Intermediate stimulus visibility was reported more frequently in the low-level task, confirming prior behavioral results. Visible targets recruited insulo-fronto-parietal regions in both tasks. Task effects were observed in visual areas, with higher activity in the low- level task across all visibility levels. Thus, the influence of level of processing on conscious perception may be mediated by attentional modulation of activity in regions representing fea- tures of consciously experienced stimuli.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/256690/3/BinderetalCC2017.pdf

 

Māori gene and epigenetics hypotheses: the temptation of population genetics

Ngaketcha Njafang, A., & Missa, J.-N. (2017). Māori gene and epigenetics hypotheses: the temptation of population genetics. Developmental medicine and child neurology, 59(7), 673. doi:10.1111/dmcn.13463  

 

What do you believe in? French translation of the FAD-plus to assess beliefs in free will and determinism and its relation with religious practices and personality traits.

Caspar, E., Rigoni, D., Verdin, O., Cleeremans, A., & Klein, O. (2017). What do you believe in? French translation of the FAD-plus to assess beliefs in free will and determinism and its relation with religious practices and personality traits. Psychologica belgica, 57(1), 1-16.  

 

Hypnosis and top-down regulation of consciousness

Therune, D., Cleeremans, A., Raz, A., & Lynn, S. J. (2017). Hypnosis and top-down regulation of consciousness. Neuroscience and biobehavioral reviews, 81, 59-74. doi:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2017.02.002  

Hypnosis is a unique form of top-down regulation in which verbal suggestions are capable of eliciting pronounced changes in a multitude of psychological phenomena. Hypnotic suggestion has been widely used both as a technique for studying basic science questions regarding human consciousness but also as a method for targeting a range of symptoms within a therapeutic context. Here we provide a synthesis of current knowledge regarding the characteristics and neurocognitive mechanisms of hypnosis. We review evidence from cognitive neuroscience, experimental psychopathology, and clinical psychology regarding the utility of hypnosis as an experimental method for modulating consciousness, as a model for studying healthy and pathological cognition, and as a therapeutic vehicle. We also highlight the relationships between hypnosis and other psychological phenomena, including the broader domain of suggestion and suggestibility and conclude by identifying the most salient challenges confronting the nascent cognitive neuroscience of hypnosis and outlining future directions for research on hypnosis and suggestion.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/246358/3/2017NBBRTherune.pdf

 

The power of suggestion: Posthypnotically Induced Changes in the Temporal Binding of Intentional Action Outcomes

Lush, P., Caspar, E., Cleeremans, A., Haggard, P., Magalhaes De Saldanha D, P., & Dienes, Z. (2017). The power of suggestion: Posthypnotically Induced Changes in the Temporal Binding of Intentional Action Outcomes. Psychological science, 1-9. doi:10.1177/0956797616687015  

The sense of agency is the experience of initiating and controlling one's voluntary actions and their outcomes. Intentional binding (i.e., when voluntary actions and their outcomes are perceived to occur closer together in time than involuntary actions and their outcomes) is increased in intentional action but requires no explicit reflection on agency. The reported experience of involuntariness is central to hypnotic responding, during which strategic action is experienced as involuntary. We report reduced intentional binding in a hypnotically induced experience of involuntariness, providing an objective correlate of reports of involuntariness. We argue that this reduced binding results from the diminished influence of motor intentions in the generation of the sense of agency when beliefs about whether an action is intended are altered. Thus, intentional binding depends on awareness of intentions. This finding shows that changes in metacognition of intentions affect perception.

 

Sure i'm sure: Prefrontal oscillations support metacognitive monitoring of decision making

Wokke, M., Cleeremans, A., & Richard Ridderinkhof, K. (2017). Sure i'm sure: Prefrontal oscillations support metacognitive monitoring of decision making. The Journal of neuroscience, 37(4), 781-789. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1612-16.2017  

Successful decision making critically involves metacognitive processes such as monitoring and control of our decision process. Metacognition enables agents to modify ongoing behavior adaptively and determine what to do next in situations in which external feedback is not (immediately) available. Despite the importance of metacognition for many aspects of life, little is known about how our metacognitive system operates or about what kind of information is used for metacognitive (second-order) judgments. In particular, it remains an open question whether metacognitive judgments are based on the same information as first-order decisions. Here, we investigated the relationship between metacognitive performance and first-order task performance by recording EEG signals while participants were asked to make a “diagnosis” after seeing a sample of fictitious patient data (a complex pattern of colored moving dots of different sizes). To assess metacognitive performance, participants provided an estimate about the quality of their diagnosis on each trial. Results demonstrate that the information that contributes to first-order decisions differs from the information that supports metacognitive judgments. Further, time-frequency analyses of EEG signals reveal that metacognitive performance is associated specifically with prefrontal theta-band activity. Together, our findings are consistent with a hierarchical model of metacognition and suggest a crucial role for prefrontal oscillations in metacognitive performance.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/247698/3/Wokke_et_al-2017.pdf

 

The influence of (Dis)belief in free will on immoral behavior

Caspar, E., Vuillaume, L., Magalhães De Saldanha da Gama, P. P., & Cleeremans, A. (2017). The influence of (Dis)belief in free will on immoral behavior. Frontiers in Psychology, 8, 20. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00020  

One of the hallmarks of human existence is that we all hold beliefs that determine how we act. Amongst such beliefs, the idea that we are endowed with free will appears to be linked to prosocial behaviors, probably by enhancing the feeling of responsibility of individuals over their own actions. However, such effects appear to be more complex that one might have initially thought. Here, we aimed at exploring how induced disbeliefs in free will impact the sense of agency over the consequences of one's own actions in a paradigm that engages morality. To do so, we asked participants to choose to inflict or to refrain from inflicting an electric choc to another participant in exchange of a small financial benefit. Our results show that participants who were primed with a text defending neural determinism - the idea that humans are a mere bunch of neurons guided by their biology - administered fewer shocks and were less vindictive toward the other participant. Importantly, this finding only held for female participants. These results show the complex interaction between gender, (dis)beliefs in free will and moral behavior.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/252379/3/doi_236006.pdf

 

2016

Sure I'm sure: Prefrontal oscillations support metacognitive monitoring of decision-making

Wokke, M., Cleeremans, A., & Richard Ridderinkhof, K. (2016). Sure I'm sure: Prefrontal oscillations support metacognitive monitoring of decision-making. Journal of Neuroscience., 1612-16. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1612-16.2016  

Successful decision-making critically involves metacognitive processes such as monitoring and control of our decision process. Metacognition enables agents to adaptively modify on-going behavior and to determine what to do next in situations where external feedback is not (immediately) available. Despite the importance of metacognition for many aspects of life, little is known about how our metacognitive system operates or about what kind of information is used for metacognitive (second-order) judgments. In particular, it remains an open question whether metacognitive judgments are based on the same information as first-order decisions.Here, we investigated the relationship between metacognitive performance and first-order task performance by recording EEG signals while participants were asked to make a “diagnosis” after seeing a sample of fictitious patient data (a complex pattern of colored moving dots of different sizes). In order to assess metacognitive performance, participants provided an estimate about the quality of their diagnosis on each trial.Results demonstrate that the information that contributes to first-order decisions differs from the information that supports metacognitive judgments. Further, time frequency analyses of electroencephalographic signals reveal that metacognitive performance is specifically associated with prefrontal theta band activity. Together, our findings are in line with a hierarchical model of metacognition, and suggest a crucial role for prefrontal oscillations in metacognitive performance.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/241825/3/JNEUROSCI.1612-16.2016.pdf

 

Spontaneous eyeblinks during breaking continuous flash suppression are associated with increased detection times

Van Opstal, F., De Loof, E., Verguts, T., & Cleeremans, A. (2016). Spontaneous eyeblinks during breaking continuous flash suppression are associated with increased detection times. Journal of vision, 16(14), 1-10. doi:10.1167/16.14.21  

An eyeblink has a clear effect on low-level information processing because it temporarily occludes all visual information. Recent evidence suggests that eyeblinks can also modulate higher level processes (e.g., attentional resources), and vice versa. Despite these putative effects on different levels of information processing, eyeblinks are typically neglected in vision and in consciousness research. The main aim of this study was to investigate the timing and the effect of eyeblinks in an increasingly popular paradigm in consciousness research, namely breaking continuous flash suppression (b-CFS). Results show that participants generally refrain from blinking during a trial, that is, when they need to detect a suppressed stimulus. However, when they do blink during a trial, we observed a sharp increase in suppression time. This suggests that one needs to control for blinking when comparing detection times between conditions that could elicit phasic changes in blinking.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/240979/3/i1534-7362-16-14-21.pdf

 

Registered Replication Report: Strack, Martin, & Stepper (1988)

Wagenmakers, E., Beek, T., Dijkhoff, L., Gronau, Q., Cleeremans, A., Zwaan, R., Klein, O., et al. (2016). Registered Replication Report: Strack, Martin, & Stepper (1988). Perspectives on Psychological Science, 11(6), 917-928. doi:10.1177/1745691616674458  

According to the facial feedback hypothesis, people's affective responses can be influenced by their own facial expression (e.g., smiling, pouting), even when their expression did not result from their emotional experiences. For example, Strack, Martin, and Stepper (1988) instructed participants to rate the funniness of cartoons using a pen that they held in their mouth. In line with the facial feedback hypothesis, when participants held the pen with their teeth (inducing a “smile”), they rated the cartoons as funnier than when they held the pen with their lips (inducing a “pout”). This seminal study of the facial feedback hypothesis has not been replicated directly. This Registered Replication Report describes the results of 17 independent direct replications of Study 1 from Strack et al. (1988), all of which followed the same vetted protocol. A meta-analysis of these studies examined the difference in funniness ratings between the “smile” and “pout” conditions. The original Strack et al. (1988) study reported a rating difference of 0.82 units on a 10-point Likert scale. Our meta-analysis revealed a rating difference of 0.03 units with a 95% confidence interval ranging from −0.11 to 0.16.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/239918/3/PPS-2016-Wagenmakers.pdf

 

The sense of agency as tracking control

Caspar, E., Desantis, A., Dienes, Z., Cleeremans, A., & Haggard, P. (2016). The sense of agency as tracking control. PloS one. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0163892  

Does sense of agency (SoA) arise merely from action-outcome associations, or does an additional real-time process track each step along the chain? Tracking control predicts that deviant intermediate steps between action and outcome should reduce SoA. In two experiments, participants learned mappings between two finger actions and two tones. In later test blocks, actions triggered a robot hand moving either the same or a different finger, and also triggered tones, which were congruent or incongruent with the mapping. The perceived delay between actions and tones gave a proxy measure for SoA. Action-tone binding was stronger for congruent than incongruent tones, but only when the robot movement was also congruent. Congruent tones also had reduced N1 amplitudes, but again only when the robot movement was congruent. We suggest that SoA partly depends on a real-time tracking control mechanism, since deviant intermediate action of the robot reduced SoA over the tone.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/238737/3/ManuscriptTrackingControl.pdf

 

Unconscious associative learning with conscious cues

Alamia, A. A., De Xivry, J.-J., San Anton, E., Olivier, E., Cleeremans, A., & Zenon, A. (2016). Unconscious associative learning with conscious cues. Neuroscience of consciousness, 2016(1), 1-10. doi:10.1093/nc/niw016  

Despite extensive research, the very existence of unconscious learning in humans remains much debated. Skepticism arises chiefly from the difficulty in assessing the level of awareness of the complex associations learned in classical implicit learn- ing paradigms. Here, we show that simple associations between colors and motion directions can be learned unconsciously. In each trial, participants had to report the motion direction of a patch of colored dots but unbeknownst to the participants, two out of the three possible colors were always associated with a given direction/response, while one was uninformative. We confirm the lack of awareness by using several tasks, fulfilling the most stringent criteria. In addition, we show the cru- cial role of trial-by-trial feedback, and that both the stimulus-response (motor) and stimulus-stimulus (perceptual) associa- tions were learned. In conclusion, we demonstrate that simple associations between supraliminal stimulus features can be learned unconsciously, providing a novel framework to study unconscious learning.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/239074/4/niw016.full.pdf

 

Ecological assessment of divided attention

Camara Lopez, M., Deliens, G., & Cleeremans, A. (2016). Ecological assessment of divided attention: What about the current tools and the relevancy of virtual reality. Revue neurologique, 172(4-5), 270-280. doi:10.1016/j.neurol.2016.01.399  

The ability to perform two tasks simultaneously has become increasingly important as attention-demanding technologies have become more common in daily life. This type of attentional resources allocation is commonly called "divided attention". Because of the importance of divided attention in natural world settings, substantial efforts have been made recently so as to promote an integrated, realistic assessment of functional abilities in dual-task paradigms. In this context, virtual reality methods appear to be a good solution. However to date, there has been little discussion on validity of such methods. Here, we offer a comparative review of conventional tools used to assess divided attention and of the first virtual reality studies (mostly from the field of road and pedestrian safety). The ecological character of virtual environments leads to a better understanding of the influence of dualtask settings and also makes it possible to clarify issues such as the utility of hands-free phones. After discussing the theoretical and clinical contributions of these studies, we discuss the limits of virtual reality assessment, focusing in particular: (i) on the challenges associated with lack of familiarity with new technological devices; (ii) on the validity of the ecological character of virtual environments; and (iii) on the question of whether the results obtained in a specific context can be generalized to all dual-task situations typical of daily life. To overcome the limitations associated with virtual reality, we propose: (i) to include a standardized familiarization phase in assessment protocols so as to limit the interference caused by the use of new technologies; (ii) to systematically compare virtual reality performance with conventional tests or real-life tests; and (iii) to design dual-task scenarios that are independent from the patient's expertise on one of the two tasks. We conclude that virtual reality appears to constitute a useful tool when used in combination with more conventional tests.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/233371/1/Elsevier_216998.pdf

 

Objective and subjective measures of cross-situational learning

Franco, A., Cleeremans, A., & Destrebecqz, A. (2016). Objective and subjective measures of cross-situational learning. Acta psychologica, 165, 16-23. doi:10.1016/j.actpsy.2016.02.001  

Statistical learning is often considered to be automatic and implicit, but little is known about the extent to which the resulting representations are available to conscious awareness. In the present study, we focus on whether the knowledge acquired in statistical learning of word-referent pairs is available to conscious control. Using a cross-situational learning paradigm, adult participants were first exposed to a set of pictures associated with auditorily presented words. Immediately thereafter, they were exposed to a second set of word-picture pairs. After the exposure phase, learning and conscious accessibility to the acquired knowledge were measured by using an adaptation of the Process Dissociation Procedure (Jacoby, 1991): two recognition tasks that only differed by instructions. In the Inclusion task, participants were instructed to accept all the correct associations (either from the first or the second set) and reject all the incorrect associations. In the Exclusion task, they had to accept all the correct associations from one of the sets and reject both the correct associations from the other set as well as all incorrect associations. Moreover, binary confidence judgments were recorded after each trial. Results show that participants were able to control the acquired knowledge. However, confidence judgments revealed that participants correctly identified the learned associations even when they claimed to guess, suggesting that cross-situational learning involves a mixture of both conscious and unconscious influences.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/231150/1/Elsevier_214777.pdf

 

Coercion changes the sense of agency in the human brain

Caspar, E., Christensen, J., Cleeremans, A., & Haggard, P. (2016). Coercion changes the sense of agency in the human brain. Current biology, 26, 1-8. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2015.12.067  

People may deny responsibility for negative consequencesof their actions by claiming that they were‘‘only obeying orders.'' The ‘‘Nuremberg defense'' offersone extreme example, though it is often dismissedas merely an attempt to avoid responsibility.Milgram's classic laboratory studies reported widespreadobedience to an instruction to harm, suggestingthat social coercion may alter mechanisms ofvoluntary agency, and hence abolish the normalexperience of being in control of one's own actions.However, Milgram's and other studies relied ondissembling and on explicit measures of agency,which are known to be biased by social norms.Here, we combined coercive instructions to administerharm to a co-participant, with implicit measuresof sense of agency, based on perceived compressionof time intervals between voluntary actionsand their outcomes, and with electrophysiologicalrecordings. In two experiments, an experimenterordered a volunteer to make a key-press action thatcaused either financial penalty or demonstrablypainful electric shock to their co-participant, therebyincreasing their own financial gain. Coercionincreased the perceived interval between actionand outcome, relative to a situation where participantsfreely chose to inflict the same harms. Interestingly,coercion also reduced the neural processing ofthe outcomes of one's own action. Thus, people whoobey orders may subjectively experience their actionsas closer to passive movements than fullyvoluntary actions. Our results highlight the complexrelation between the brain mechanisms thatgenerate the subjective experience of voluntary actionsand social constructs, such as responsibility.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/222946/4/doi_206573.pdf

 

Dissociating perception from action during conscious and unconscious conflict adaptation

Atas, A., Desender, K., Gevers, W., & Cleeremans, A. (2016). Dissociating perception from action during conscious and unconscious conflict adaptation. Journal of experimental psychology. Learning, memory, and cognition, 42(6), 866-881. doi:10.1037/xlm0000206  

The detection of a conflict between relevant and irrelevant information on a given trial typically results in a smaller conflict effect on the next trial. This sequential effect has been interpreted as an expression of cognitive control implemented to resolve conflict. In this context, 2 different but related issues have received increasing attention in the literature. The first issue is whether the detection of motor conflict is necessary to induce cognitive control or, alternatively, whether the detection of perceptual conflict is sufficient. The second issue concerns whether awareness of the conflict is necessary to induce cognitive control. Here, we address both issues in a single design. Our reaction-time (RT) results indicate that conflict-driven control is domain-specific. The detection of perceptual conflict on the previous trial selectively reduces perceptual conflict on the next trial. Similarly, the detection of motor conflict on the previous trial selectively reduces motor conflict on the next trial. For errors, adaptive control seemed to be more general: The detection of perceptual or motor conflict on the previous trial reduced the frequency of errors on response-conflict trials. Furthermore, unconsciously triggered conflict adaptation was observed, but not systematically. Results on errors provide some evidence that sensitivity to an unconscious conflict on the previous trial reduces the frequency of errors on the current trial. For RT analyses however, unconscious conflict appeared not to be sufficient to induce cognitive control. This pattern of results is in line with previous studies examining the role of consciousness in conflict adaptation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/188470/3/15-Atas_Desender_Gevers_Cleeremans.pdf

 

‘Free Will': Are we all equal ? A dynamical perspective of the conscious intention to move

Caspar, E., & Cleeremans, A. (2016). ‘Free Will': Are we all equal ? A dynamical perspective of the conscious intention to move. Neuroscience of consciousness, 2016(1). doi:10.1093/nc/niv009  

In their seminal (1983) study, Libet and colleagues suggested that awareness of one's intention to act has a postdictive character in that it occurs long after cerebral activity leading to action has been initiated. Crucially, Libet et al. further suggested that the time window (6200 ms) between the conscious experience of the intention to act and the action itself offers people the possibility of “vetoing” the unfolding action. This raises the question of whether there are individual differences in the duration of this “veto window” and which components of the readiness potential (RP) and the lateral- ized readiness potential (LRP) explain this variability. It has been reported that some psychiatric diseases lead to shorter intervals between conscious intentions and actions. However, it is unclear whether such patients suffer from impair- ment of the sense of volition, thus experiencing voluntary movements as involuntary, or whether voluntary inhibition of action is actually reduced, since conscious intention occurs later. We had two aims in the present paper. First, we aimed at clarifying the role of consciousness in voluntary actions by examining the relation between the duration of the veto window and impulsivity. Second, we sought to examine different components of the RP and LRP waveforms so as to attempt to explain observed variability in W judgments. Our results indicate (1) that impulsive people exhibit a shorter delay between their intention and the action than non-impulsive people, and (2) that this difference can hardly be attrib- uted to a difference in time perception. Electroencephalography indicated that the rate of growth of the RP is relevant to explain differences in W judgments, since we observed that the RP at the moment of conscious intention is lower for people with late conscious intention than for people with early conscious intention. The onset and the intercept of these waveforms were less interpretable. These results bring new light on the role that consciousness plays in voluntary action.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/222942/4/16-CasparCleeremans-NoC.pdf

 

2015

Le sport de compétition, laboratoire de la médecine d'amélioration: analyse éthique et philosophique de la question du dopage

Missa, J.-N. (2015). Le sport de compétition, laboratoire de la médecine d'amélioration: analyse éthique et philosophique de la question du dopage. Revista colombiana de bioetica, 10(2), 193-209.  

 

El deporte de competición, laboratorio de la medicina del mejoramiento: análisis ético y filosófico del problema del dopaje

Missa, J.-N. (2015). El deporte de competición, laboratorio de la medicina del mejoramiento: análisis ético y filosófico del problema del dopaje. Revista colombiana de bioetica, 10(2), 210-226.  

 

Impact of Acute Sleep Deprivation on Sarcasm Detection.

Deliens, G., Stercq, F., Mary, A., Slama, H., Cleeremans, A., Peigneux, P., & Kissine, M. (2015). Impact of Acute Sleep Deprivation on Sarcasm Detection. PloS one, 10(11), e0140527. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0140527  

There is growing evidence that sleep plays a pivotal role on health, cognition and emotional regulation. However, the interplay between sleep and social cognition remains an uncharted research area. In particular, little is known about the impact of sleep deprivation on sarcasm detection, an ability which, once altered, may hamper everyday social interactions. The aim of this study is to determine whether sleep-deprived participants are as able as sleep-rested participants to adopt another perspective in gauging sarcastic statements. At 9am, after a whole night of sleep (n = 15) or a sleep deprivation night (n = 15), participants had to read the description of an event happening to a group of friends. An ambiguous voicemail message left by one of the friends on another's phone was then presented, and participants had to decide whether the recipient would perceive the message as sincere or as sarcastic. Messages were uttered with a neutral intonation and were either: (1) sarcastic from both the participant's and the addressee's perspectives (i.e. both had access to the relevant background knowledge to gauge the message as sarcastic), (2) sarcastic from the participant's but not from the addressee's perspective (i.e. the addressee lacked context knowledge to detect sarcasm) or (3) sincere. A fourth category consisted in messages sarcastic from both the participant's and from the addressee's perspective, uttered with a sarcastic tone. Although sleep-deprived participants were as accurate as sleep-rested participants in interpreting the voice message, they were also slower. Blunted reaction time was not fully explained by generalized cognitive slowing after sleep deprivation; rather, it could reflect a compensatory mechanism supporting normative accuracy level in sarcasm understanding. Introducing prosodic cues compensated for increased processing difficulties in sarcasm detection after sleep deprivation. Our findings support the hypothesis that sleep deprivation might damage the flow of social interactions by slowing perspective-taking processes.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/220437/3/doi_204064.pdf

 

Avant-propos

Perbal, L., & Missa, J.-N. (2015). Avant-propos: Biology and the technological future of man. Comptes rendus. Biologies, 338(8-9), 521-522. doi:10.1016/j.crvi.2015.06.012  
https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/219403/1/Elsevier_203030.pdf

 

"biology and the future of man", 18-24 septembre 1974 : l'histoire d'un devenir

Daled, P.-F. (2015). "biology and the future of man", 18-24 septembre 1974 : l'histoire d'un devenir. Comptes rendus. Biologies, 338(8-9), 527-533. doi:10.1016/j.crvi.2015.06.005  

This article sketches the context of the 1960s and 1970s during which was held in Paris in 1974 the international conference "Biology and the future of man", and shows by this reminder that the Paris conference was a precursor moment in Europe in terms of academic answers to ethical questions that were emerging in the USA. At its extent, the Paris conference was a pioneer in the history of "bioethics" and "environmental ethics".

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/218178/1/Elsevier_201805.pdf

 

Does level of processing affect the transition from unconscious to conscious perception?

Anzulewicz, A., Asanowicz, D., Windey, B., Paulewicz, B., Wierzchoń, M., & Cleeremans, A. (2015). Does level of processing affect the transition from unconscious to conscious perception? Consciousness and cognition, 36, 1-11. doi:10.1016/j.concog.2015.05.004  

Recently, Windey, Gevers, and Cleeremans (2013) proposed a level of processing (LoP) hypothesis claiming that the transition from unconscious to conscious perception is influenced by the level of processing imposed by task requirements. Here, we carried out two experiments to test the LoP hypothesis. In both, participants were asked to classify briefly presented pairs of letters as same or different, based either on the letters' physical features (a low-level task), or on a semantic rule (a high-level task). Stimulus awareness was measured by means of the four-point Perceptual Awareness Scale (PAS). The results showed that low or moderate stimulus visibility was reported more frequently in the low-level task than in the high-level task, suggesting that the transition from unconscious to conscious perception is more gradual in the former than in the latter. Therefore, although alternative interpretations remain possible, the results of the present study fully support the LoP hypothesis.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/200398/4/Elsevier_184025.pdf

 

Prolongation de la vie et médecine d'amélioration

Missa, J.-N. (2015). Prolongation de la vie et médecine d'amélioration. Sciences sociales et santé, 33(2), 31-39.  

 

The Temporal Dynamic of Automatic Inhibition of Irrelevant Actions

Atas, A., & Cleeremans, A. (2015). The Temporal Dynamic of Automatic Inhibition of Irrelevant Actions. Journal of experimental psychology. Human perception and performance. doi:10.1037/a0038654  

Motor inhibition can occur even without conscious perception and any voluntary effort. Although it is now clear that such an inhibitory process needs time to unfold, its exact temporal dynamic remains to be elucidated. Therefore, the present study aims to examine the impact of various temporal factors on automatic motor inhibition using the masked priming task. Results shows that this process can be modulated by any factor that introduces time between the mask onset and the execution of target response, whether it stems from a purely external origin (mask-target SOA), a purely internal origin (spontaneous reaction time [RT] fluctuations), or a mix of both (RT fluctuations from the target sequence). Moreover, when the external temporal factor could not determine the direction of prime influence, the RT fluctuations had the strongest impact on the priming effect. These RT fluctuations are plausibly because of spontaneous trial-to-trial changes from more impulsive and error-prone decisions to more cautious and accurate decisions to the target. Indeed, both accuracy and speed were equally required during the task, but both requirements are impossible to achieve perfectly in every trial. This suggests that fluctuations in the level of caution in voluntary decisions can modulate unconscious and involuntary motor inhibition.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/188461/3/15-AtasCleermans_2015_jephpp.pdf

 

Consciousness as a graded and an all-or-none phenomenon: A conceptual analysis

Windey, B., & Cleeremans, A. (2015). Consciousness as a graded and an all-or-none phenomenon: A conceptual analysis. Consciousness and cognition, 35, 185-191. doi:10.1016/j.concog.2015.03.002  

The issue whether consciousness is a graded or an all-or-none phenomenon has been and continues to be a debate. Both contradictory accounts are supported by solid evidence. Starting from a level of processing framework allowing for states of partial awareness, here we further elaborate our view that visual experience, as it is most often investigated in the literature, is both graded and all-or-none. Low-level visual experience is graded, whereas high-level visual experience is all-or-none. We then present a conceptual analysis starting from the notion that consciousness is a general concept. We specify a number of different subconcepts present in the literature on consciousness, and outline how each of them may be seen as either graded, all-or-none, or both. We argue that such specifications are necessary to lead to a detailed and integrated understanding of how consciousness should be conceived of as graded and all-or-none.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/197228/4/Elsevier_180855.pdf

 

The relationship between human agency and embodiment

Caspar, E., Cleeremans, A., & Haggard, P. (2015). The relationship between human agency and embodiment. Consciousness and cognition, 33, 226-236. doi:10.1016/j.concog.2015.01.007  

Humans regularly feel a sense of agency (SoA) over events where the causal link between action and outcome is extremely indirect. We have investigated how intermediate (here, a robotic hand) events that intervene between action and outcome may alter SoA, using intentional binding measures. The robotic hand either performed the same movement as the participant (active congruent), or performed a similar movement with another finger (active incongruent). Binding was significantly reduced in the active incongruent relative to the active congruent condition, suggesting that altered embodiment influences SoA. However, binding effects were comparable between a condition where the robot hand made a congruent movement, and conditions where no robot hand was involved, suggesting that intermediate and embodied events do not reduce SoA. We suggest that human sense of agency involves both statistical associations between intentions and arbitrary outcomes, and an effector-specific matching of sensorimotor means used to achieve the outcome.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/191749/4/Elsevier_175376.pdf

 

Rapid Serial Auditory Presentation: a new measure of statistical learning in speech segmentation

Franco, A., Eberlen, J., Cleeremans, A., Destrebecqz, A., & Bertels, J. (2015). Rapid Serial Auditory Presentation: a new measure of statistical learning in speech segmentation. Experimental psychology, 62, 346-351. doi:10.1027/1618-3169/a000295  

The Rapid Serial Visual Presentation procedure is a method widely used in visual perception research. In this paper we propose an adaptation of this method which can be used with auditory material and enables assessment of statistical learning in speech segmentation. Adult participants were exposed to an artificial speech stream composed of statistically defined trisyllabic nonsense words. They were subsequently instructed to perform a detection task in a Rapid Serial Auditory Presentation (RSAP) stream in which they had to detect a syllable in a short speech stream. Results showed that reaction times varied as a function of the statistical predictability of the syllable: second and third syllables of each word were responded to faster than first syllables. This result suggests that the RSAP procedure provides a reliable and sensitive indirect measure of auditory statistical learning.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/190830/3/Franco_et_al_2015.pdf

 

Assessing segmentation processes by click detection: online measure of statistical learning, or simple interference?

Franco, A., Gaillard, V., Cleeremans, A., & Destrebecqz, A. (2015). Assessing segmentation processes by click detection: online measure of statistical learning, or simple interference? Behavior Research Methods, 47(4), 1393-1403. doi:10.3758/s13428-014-0548-x  

Statistical learning can be used to extract the words from continuous speech. Gómez, Bion, and Mehler (Language and Cognitive Processes, 26, 212-223, 2011) proposed an online measure of statistical learning: They superimposed auditory clicks on a continuous artificial speech stream made up of a random succession of trisyllabic nonwords. Participants were instructed to detect these clicks, which could be located either within or between words. The results showed that, over the length of exposure, reaction times (RTs) increased more for within-word than for between-word clicks. This result has been accounted for by means of statistical learning of the between-word boundaries. However, even though statistical learning occurs without an intention to learn, it nevertheless requires attentional resources. Therefore, this process could be affected by a concurrent task such as click detection. In the present study, we evaluated the extent to which the click detection task indeed reflects successful statistical learning. Our results suggest that the emergence of RT differences between within- and between-word click detection is neither systematic nor related to the successful segmentation of the artificial language. Therefore, instead of being an online measure of learning, the click detection task seems to interfere with the extraction of statistical regularities.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/185273/4/doi_168900.pdf

 

New frontiers in the rubber hand experiment: when a robotic hand becomes one's own

Caspar, E., De Beir, A., Magalhaes De Saldanha D, P., Yernaux, F., Cleeremans, A., & Vanderborght, B. (2015). New frontiers in the rubber hand experiment: when a robotic hand becomes one's own. Behavior Research Methods, 47(3), 744-755. doi:10.3758/s13428-014-0498-3  

The rubber hand illusion is an experimental paradigm in which participants consider a fake hand to be part of their body. This paradigm has been used in many domains of psychology (i.e., research on pain, body ownership, agency) and is of clinical importance. The classic rubber hand paradigm nevertheless suffers from limitations, such as the absence of active motion or the reliance on approximate measurements, which makes strict experimental conditions difficult to obtain. Here, we report on the development of a novel technology—a robotic, user- and computer-controllable hand—that addresses many of the limitations associated with the classic rubber hand paradigm. Because participants can actively control the robotic hand, the device affords higher realism and authenticity. Our robotic hand has a comparatively low cost and opens up novel and innovative methods. In order to validate the robotic hand, we have carried out three experiments. The first two studies were based on previous research using the rubber hand, while the third was specific to the robotic hand. We measured both sense of agency and ownership. Overall, results show that participants experienced a “robotic hand illusion” in the baseline conditions. Furthermore, we also replicated previous results about agency and ownership.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/217565/3/Manuscript_NewFrontiers.pdf

 

Different effects of executive and visuospatial working memory on visual consciousness

De Loof, E., Poppe, L., Cleeremans, A., Gevers, W., & Van Opstal, F. (2015). Different effects of executive and visuospatial working memory on visual consciousness. Attention, Perception & Psychophysics, 77(8), 2523-2528. doi:10.3758/s13414-015-1000-8  

Consciousness and working memory are two widely studied cognitive phenomena. Although they have been closely tied on a theoretical and neural level, empirical work that investigates their relation is largely lacking. In this study, the relationship between visual consciousness and different working memory components is investigated by using a dual-task paradigm. More specifically, while participants were performing a visual detection task to measure their visual awareness threshold, they had to concurrently perform either an executive or visuospatial working memory task. We hypothesized that visual consciousness would be hindered depending on the type and the size of the load in working memory. Results showed that maintaining visuospatial content in working memory hinders visual awareness, irrespective of the amount of information maintained. By contrast, the detection threshold was progressively affected under increasing executive load. Interestingly, increasing executive load had a generic effect on detection speed, calling into question whether its obstructing effect is specific to the visual awareness threshold. Together, these results indicate that visual consciousness depends differently on executive and visuospatial working memory.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/219562/4/doi_203189.pdf

 

2014

The reversal of perceptual and motor compatibility effects differs qualitatively between metacontrast and random-line masks

Atas, A., San Anton, E., & Cleeremans, A. (2014). The reversal of perceptual and motor compatibility effects differs qualitatively between metacontrast and random-line masks. Psychological research, 1-16. doi:10.1007/s00426-014-0611-3  

In masked priming tasks, participants typically respond faster to compatible than to incompatible primes, an effect that has been dubbed as the positive compatibility effect (PCE). However, when the interval between the prime and the mask is relatively long, responses are faster to incompatible than to compatible primes. This inversion is called the negative compatibility effect (NCE). Two main origins of the NCE have been proposed. The object-updating theory holds that when the masks share stimulus features with the primes, both perceptual and motor processes generate an NCE. As an example, for masks composed of overlaid left and right prime arrows, the NCE is thought to be positive priming induced by the arrow of the mask pointing in the opposite direction of the prime. In contrast, the motor inhibition theories hold that the origin of the NCE is purely motor and can be demonstrated when masks do not share features with primes. To test both hypotheses, the present study aims at delineating the respective contributions of perceptual and motor components of the NCE in the context of different types of masks. Consistent with the object-updating hypothesis, we found both perceptual and motor NCEs at the long SOA with metacontrast masks (with internal contours corresponding to left and right overlaid arrows). Consistent with the motor inhibition hypothesis, we found motor NCE but no perceptual NCE at the long SOA with random-line masks (containing no prime features). The study thus suggests that the origin of the NCE depends on the type of mask.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/177250/1/Atas_SanAnon_Cleeremans2014.pdf

 

Connecting conscious and unconscious processing

Cleeremans, A. (2014). Connecting conscious and unconscious processing. Cognitive science, 38(6), 1286-1315. doi:10.1111/cogs.12149  

Consciousness remains a mystery—“a phenomenon that people do not know how to think about—yet” (Dennett, 1991, p. 21). Here, I consider how the connectionist perspective on infor- mation processing may help us progress toward the goal of understanding the computational prin- ciples through which conscious and unconscious processing differ. I begin by delineating the conceptual challenges associated with classical approaches to cognition insofar as understanding unconscious information processing is concerned, and to highlight several contrasting computa- tional principles that are constitutive of the connectionist approach. This leads me to suggest that conscious and unconscious processing are fundamentally connected, that is, rooted in the very same computational principles. I further develop a perspective according to which the brain con- tinuously and unconsciously learns to redescribe its own activity itself based on constant interac- tion with itself, with the world, and with other minds. The outcome of such interactions is the emergence of internal models that are metacognitive in nature and that function so as to make it possible for an agent to develop a (limited, implicit, practical) understanding of itself. In this light, plasticity and learning are constitutive of what makes us conscious, for it is in virtue of our own experiences with ourselves and with other people that our mental life acquires its subjective char- acter. The connectionist framework continues to be uniquely positioned in the Cognitive Sciences to address the challenge of identifying what one could call the “computational correlates of con- sciousness” (Mathis & Mozer, 1996) because it makes it possible to focus on the mechanisms through which information processing takes place.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/174844/1/Cognition_Cleeremans.pdf

 

Impaired decision-making under risk in individuals with alcohol dependence.

Brevers, D., Bechara, A., Cleeremans, A., Kornreich, C., Verbanck, P., & Noël, X. (2014). Impaired decision-making under risk in individuals with alcohol dependence. Alcoholism, clinical and experimental research, 38(7), 1924-1931. doi:10.1111/acer.12447  

Alcohol dependence is associated with poor decision-making under ambiguity, that is, when decisions are to be made in the absence of known probabilities of reward and loss. However, little is known regarding decisions made by individuals with alcohol dependence in the context of known probabilities (decision under risk). In this study, we investigated the relative contribution of these distinct aspects of decision-making to alcohol dependence.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/176522/3/176522.pdf

 

Different subjective awareness measures demonstrate the influence of visual identification on perceptual awareness ratings

Wierzchoń, M., Paulewicz, B., Asanowicz, D., Timmermans, B., & Cleeremans, A. (2014). Different subjective awareness measures demonstrate the influence of visual identification on perceptual awareness ratings. Consciousness and cognition, 27, 109-120. doi:10.1016/j.concog.2014.04.009  

We compare four subjective awareness measures in the context of a visual identification task and investigate quantitative differences in terms of scale use and correlation with task performance. We also analyse the effect of identification task decisions on subsequent subjective reports. Results show that awareness ratings strongly predict accuracy for all scale types, although the type of awareness measure may influence the reported level of perceptual awareness. Surprisingly, the overall relationship between awareness ratings and performance was weaker when participants rated their awareness before providing identification responses. Furthermore, the Perceptual Awareness Scale was most exhaustive only when used after the identification task, whereas confidence ratings were most exhaustive when used before the identification task. We conclude that the type of subjective measure applied may influence the reports on visual awareness. We also propose that identification task decisions may affect subsequent awareness ratings.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/171980/1/1-s2.0-S1053810014000658-main.pdf

 

When a (precise) awareness measure became a (sketchy) introspective report

Wierzchon, M., Szczepanowski, R., Anzulewicz, A., & Cleeremans, A. (2014). When a (precise) awareness measure became a (sketchy) introspective report. Consciousness and cognition, 26, 1-2. doi:10.1016/j.concog.2014.02.001  
https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/163761/4/Elsevier_147391.pdf

 

The graded and dichotomous nature of visual awareness

Windey, B., Vermeiren, A., Atas, A., & Cleeremans, A. (2014). The graded and dichotomous nature of visual awareness. Philosophical transactions - Royal Society. Biological Sciences, 369(1641), 20130204. doi:10.1098/rstb.2013.0282  

Is our visual experience of the world graded or dichotomous? Opposite pre-theoretical intuitions apply in different cases. For instance, when looking at a scene, one has a distinct sense that our experience has a graded character: one cannot say that there is no experience of contents that fall outside the focus of attention, but one cannot say that there is full awareness of such contents either. By contrast, when performing a visual detection task, our sense of having perceived the stimulus or not exhibits a more dichotomous character. Such issues have recently been the object of intense debate because different theoretical frameworks make different predictions about the graded versus dichotomous character of consciousness. Here, we review both relevant empirical findings as well as the associated theories (i.e. local recurrent processing versus global neural workspace theory). Next, we attempt to reconcile such contradictory theories by suggesting that level of processing is an often-ignored but highly relevant dimension through which we can cast a novel look at existing empirical findings. Thus, using a range of different stimuli, tasks and subjective scales, we show that processing low-level, non-semantic content results in graded visual experience, whereas processing high-level semantic content is experienced in a more dichotomous manner. We close by comparing our perspective with existing proposals, focusing in particular on the partial awareness hypothesis.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/159635/1/PhilTrans_2014_Windey.pdf

 

Nonconscious Learning From Crowded Sequences

Atas, A., Faivre, N., Timmermans, B., Cleeremans, A., & Kouider, S. (2014). Nonconscious Learning From Crowded Sequences. Psychological science, 25(1), 113-119.  

Can people learn complex information without conscious awareness? Implicit learning—learning without awareness of what has been learned—has been the focus of intense investigation over the last 50 years. However, it remains controversial whether complex knowledge can be learned implicitly. In the research reported here, we addressed this challenge by asking participants to differentiate between sequences of symbols they could not perceive consciously. Using an operant-conditioning task, we showed that participants learned to associate distinct sequences of crowded (nondiscriminable) symbols with their respective monetary outcomes (reward or punishment). Overall, our study demonstrates that sensitivity to sequential regularities can arise through the nonconscious temporal integration of perceptual information.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/154911/1/10.1177_0956797613499591.pdf

 

On the other side of the mirror: Priming in cognitive and social psychology

Doyen, S., Klein, O., Simon, D. J., & Cleeremans, A. (2014). On the other side of the mirror: Priming in cognitive and social psychology. Social cognition, 32, 12-32. doi:10.1521/soco.2014.32.supp.12  

Over the past several years, two largely separate traditions have collided, leading to controversy over claims about priming. We describe and contrast the main accounts of priming effects in cognitive and social psychology, focusing especially on the role of awareness. In so doing, we consider one of the core points of contention, claims about the effects of subliminal priming. Whereas cognitive psychologists often are interested in exploring how priming operates with and without awareness, social psychologists more commonly assume subliminality in order to bolster claims about the automaticity of priming. We discuss the criteria necessary to claim that a stimulus was processed entirely without awareness, noting the challenges in meeting those criteria. Finally, we identify three sources of conflict between the fields: awareness, replicability, and the nature of the underlying processes. We close by proposing resolutions for each of them.!

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/159401/6/Doyen_Klein_Cleeremans_Simons.pdf

 

The effect of the cognitive demands of the distraction task on unconscious thought

Waroquier, L., Abadie, M., Klein, O., & Cleeremans, A. (2014). The effect of the cognitive demands of the distraction task on unconscious thought. Behavioral and brain sciences, 37(1), 44.  

The unconscious-thought effect occurs when distraction improves complex decision making. Recent studies suggest that this effect is more likely to occur with low- than high-demanding distraction tasks. We discuss implications of these findings for Newell & Shanks' (N&S's) claim that evidence is lacking for the intervention of unconscious processes in complex decision making.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/152484/1/Waroquier-C-pre-edited_CE_AU_REV.docx

 

Dissociating conscious and unconscious learning with objective and subjective measures

Gaillard, V., Cleeremans, A., & Destrebecqz, A. (2014). Dissociating conscious and unconscious learning with objective and subjective measures. Clinical EEG and neuroscience, 45(1), 50-56. doi:10.1177/1550059413516757  

According to functionalist theories, consciousness can be defined by the functions that it serves and by the way it contributes to cognition. For example, when trying to establish dissociations between conscious and unconscious knowledge, conscious representations would be identified by the fact that they allow cognitive control or successful identification or recollection, assessed by verbal reports or forced-choice tasks. Even though the functionalist approach has brought about important dissociation results concerning conscious and unconscious cognition, critics emphasize that it does not account for the qualitative properties of conscious experience. Phenomenal theories are precisely based on the notion that conscious representations are such that it feels like something to have these representations. Thus, one way to assess conscious knowledge is to ask people, after they have produced a forced-choice response, to identify their mental states through the use of subjective confidence ratings, in which they discriminate between a complete guess and a response based on some feeling of knowing. However, these 2 approaches are not mutually exclusive. In this article, we review a series of studies showing that the joint use of objective judgments about some external stimuli and about one's own subjective knowledge concerning these stimuli, provides new insights into the putative dissociation between conscious and unconscious knowledge in learning.

 

Project DyAdd: Implicit learning in adult dyslexia and ADHD

Laasonen, M., Väre, J., Oksanen-Hennah, H., Hokkanen, L., Leppämäki, S., Tani, P., Harno, H., Pothos, E., & Cleeremans, A. (2014). Project DyAdd: Implicit learning in adult dyslexia and ADHD. Annals of dyslexia, 64(1), 1-33. doi:10.1007/s11881-013-0083-y  

In this study of the project DyAdd, implicit learning was investigated through two paradigms in adults (18-55 years) with dyslexia (n = 36) or with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, n = 22) and in controls (n = 35). In the serial reaction time (SRT) task, there were no group differences in learning. However, those with ADHD exhibited faster RTs compared to other groups. In the artificial grammar learning (AGL) task, the groups did not differ from each other in their learning (i.e., grammaticality accuracy or similarity choices). Further, all three groups were sensitive to fragment overlap between learning and test-phase items (i.e., similarity choices were above chance). Grammaticality performance of control participants was above chance, but that of participants with dyslexia and participants with ADHD failed to differ from chance, indicating impaired grammaticality learning in these groups. While the main indices of AGL performance, grammaticality accuracy and similarity choices did not correlate with the neuropsychological variables that reflected dyslexia-related (phonological processing, reading, spelling, arithmetic) or ADHD-related characteristics (executive functions, attention), or intelligence, the explicit knowledge for the AGL grammar (i.e., ability to freely generate grammatical strings) correlated positively with the variables of phonological processing and reading. Further, SRT reaction times correlated positively with full scale intelligence quotient (FIQ). We conclude that, in AGL, learning difficulties of the underlying rule structure (as measured by grammaticality) are associated with dyslexia and ADHD. However, learning in AGL is not related to the defining neuropsychological features of dyslexia or ADHD. Instead, the resulting explicit knowledge relates to characteristics of dyslexia. © 2013 The International Dyslexia Association.

 

2013

Repeating a strongly masked stimulus increases priming and awareness.

Atas, A., Vermeiren, A., & Cleeremans, A. (2013). Repeating a strongly masked stimulus increases priming and awareness. Consciousness and cognition, 22(4), 1422-1430. doi:10.1016/j.concog.2013.09.011  

Previous studies [Marcel, A. J. (1983). Conscious and unconscious perception: Experiments on visual masking and word recognition. Cognitive Psychology, 15(2), 197-237; Wentura, D., & Frings, C. (2005). Repeated masked category primes interfere with related exemplars: New evidence for negative semantic priming. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 31(1), 108-120] suggested that repeatedly presenting a masked stimulus improves priming without increasing perceptual awareness. However, neural theories of consciousness predict the opposite: Increasing bottom-up strength in such a paradigm should also result in increasing availability to awareness. Here, we tested this prediction by manipulating the number of repetitions of a strongly masked digit. Our results do not replicate the dissociation observed in previous studies and are instead suggestive that repeating an unconscious and attended masked stimulus enables the progressive emergence of perceptual awareness.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/151543/4/Elsevier_135919.pdf

 

Sleep-dependent neurophysiological processes in implicit sequence learning.

Urbain, C., Schmitz, R., Schmidt, C., Cleeremans, A., Van Bogaert, P., Maquet, P., & Peigneux, P. (2013). Sleep-dependent neurophysiological processes in implicit sequence learning. Journal of cognitive neuroscience, 25(11), 2003-2014. doi:10.1162/jocn_a_00439  

Behavioral studies have cast doubts about the role that posttraining sleep may play in the consolidation of implicit sequence learning. Here, we used event-related fMRI to test the hypothesis that sleep-dependent functional reorganization would take place in the underlying neural circuits even in the possible absence of obvious behavioral changes. Twenty-four healthy human adults were scanned at Day 1 and then at Day 4 during an implicit probabilistic serial RT task. They either slept normally (RS) or were sleep-deprived (SD) on the first posttraining night. Unknown to them, the sequential structure of the material was based on a probabilistic finite-state grammar, with 15% chance on each trial of replacing the rules-based grammatical (G) stimulus with a nongrammatical (NG) one. Results indicated a gradual differentiation across sessions between RTs (faster RTs for G than NG), together with NG-related BOLD responses reflecting sequence learning. Similar behavioral patterns were observed in RS and SD participants at Day 4, indicating time- but not sleep-dependent consolidation of performance. Notwithstanding, we observed at Day 4 in the RS group a diminished differentiation between G- and NG-related neurophysiological responses in a set of cortical and subcortical areas previously identified as being part of the network involved in implicit sequence learning and its offline processing during sleep, indicating a sleep-dependent processing of both regular and deviant stimuli. Our results suggest the sleep-dependent development of distinct neurophysiological processes subtending consolidation of implicit motor sequence learning, even in the absence of overt behavioral differences.

 

La révolution des psychotropes : des espoirs déçus?

Missa, J.-N. (2013). La révolution des psychotropes : des espoirs déçus? Sciences humaines, 6(31), 12-15.  

 

Implicit gambling attitudes in problem gamblers: positive but not negative implicit associations.

Brevers, D., Cleeremans, A., Hermant, C., Tibboel, H., Kornreich, C., Verbanck, P., & Noël, X. (2013). Implicit gambling attitudes in problem gamblers: positive but not negative implicit associations. Journal of behavior therapy and experimental psychiatry, 44(1), 94-97. doi:10.1016/j.jbtep.2012.07.008  

Implicit attitudes (associations) are involved in the generation of substance use behaviors. However, little is known about the role of this automatic cognitive processing in deregulated behaviors without substance use, such as abnormal gambling. This study examined whether problem gamblers exhibit both positive and negative implicit attitudes toward gambling-related stimuli.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/138007/4/Elsevier_120929.pdf

 

The perception of visual emotion: Comparing different measures of awareness

Szczepanowski, R., Traczyk, J., Wierzchoń, M., & Cleeremans, A. (2013). The perception of visual emotion: Comparing different measures of awareness. Consciousness and cognition, 22(1), 212-220. doi:10.1016/j.concog.2012.12.003  

Here, we explore the sensitivity of different awareness scales in revealing conscious reports on visual emotion perception. Participants were exposed to a backward masking task involving fearful faces and asked to rate their conscious awareness in perceiving emotion in facial expression using three different subjective measures: confidence ratings (CRs), with the conventional taxonomy of certainty, the perceptual awareness scale (PAS), through which participants categorize " raw" visual experience, and post-decision wagering (PDW), which involves economic categorization. Our results show that the CR measure was the most exhaustive and the most graded. In contrast, the PAS and PDW measures suggested instead that consciousness of emotional stimuli is dichotomous. Possible explanations of the inconsistency were discussed. Finally, our results also indicate that PDW biases awareness ratings by enhancing first-order accuracy of emotion perception. This effect was possibly a result of higher motivation induced by monetary incentives. © 2012 Elsevier Inc..

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/167739/1/Elsevier_151369.pdf

 

Subjective visibility depends on level of processing

Windey, B., Gevers, W., & Cleeremans, A. (2013). Subjective visibility depends on level of processing. Cognition, 129(2), 404-409.  

Is visual awareness graded or binary? Experimental work has provided support for both possibilities, leading to two coexisting but contradictory theoretical accounts. Here we pro- pose a promising candidate factor through which to integrate both accounts: the depth of stimulus processing required by the task. We compared color identification (a low-level task) with numerical judgements (a high-level task) performed on the very same colored number stimuli. Psychophysical curves were analyzed for both objective discrimination performance and subjective visibility ratings on a trial-by trial basis. We observed a graded relationship between stimulus duration and visibility in the low-level task, but a more non-linear relationship in the high-level task. Both patterns of results have previously been consistently associated with the graded and the dichotomous account, respectively. Follow-up experiments that manipulate the level of processing can further unify previously inconsistent results, thus integrating two major theories of visual awareness.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/149396/1/13-Cognition.pdf

 

Iowa Gambling Task (IGT): twenty years after - gambling disorder and IGT.

Brevers, D., Bechara, A., Cleeremans, A., & Noël, X. (2013). Iowa Gambling Task (IGT): twenty years after - gambling disorder and IGT. Frontiers in Psychology, 4, 665. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00665  

The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) involves probabilistic learning via monetary rewards and punishments, where advantageous task performance requires subjects to forego potential large immediate rewards for small longer-term rewards to avoid larger losses. Pathological gamblers (PG) perform worse on the IGT compared to controls, relating to their persistent preference toward high, immediate, and uncertain rewards despite experiencing larger losses. In this contribution, we review studies that investigated processes associated with poor IGT performance in PG. Findings from these studies seem to fit with recent neurocognitive models of addiction, which argue that the diminished ability of addicted individuals to ponder short-term against long-term consequences of a choice may be the product of an hyperactive automatic attentional and memory system for signaling the presence of addiction-related cues (e.g., high uncertain rewards associated with disadvantageous decks selection during the IGT) and for attributing to such cues pleasure and excitement. This incentive-salience associated with gambling-related choice in PG may be so high that it could literally "hijack" resources ["hot" executive functions (EFs)] involved in emotional self-regulation and necessary to allow the enactment of further elaborate decontextualized problem-solving abilities ("cool" EFs). A framework for future research is also proposed, which highlights the need for studies examining how these processes contribute specifically to the aberrant choice profile displayed by PG on the IGT.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/151301/4/doi_135649.pdf

 

Placebo-suggestion modulates conflict resolution in the Stroop Task

Magalhaes De Saldanha D, P., Slama, H., Caspar, E., Gevers, W., & Cleeremans, A. (2013). Placebo-suggestion modulates conflict resolution in the Stroop Task. PloS one, 8(10), e75701. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0075701  

Here, we ask whether placebo-suggestion (without any form of hypnotic induction) can modulate the resolution of cognitive conflict. Naïve participants performed a Stroop Task while wearing an EEG cap described as a “brain wave” machine. In Experiment 1, participants were made to believe that the EEG cap would either enhance or decrease their color perception and performance on the Stroop task. In Experiment 2, participants were explicitly asked to <italic>imagine</italic> that their color perception and performance would be enhanced or decreased (non-hypnotic imaginative suggestion). We observed effects of placebo-suggestion on Stroop interference on accuracy: interference was decreased with positive suggestion and increased with negative suggestion compared to baseline. Intra-individual variability was also increased under negative suggestion compared to baseline. Compliance with the instruction to imagine a modulation of performance, on the other hand, did not influence accuracy and only had a negative impact on response latencies and on intra-individual variability, especially in the congruent condition of the Stroop Task. Taken together, these results demonstrate that expectations induced by a placebo-suggestion can modulate our ability to resolve cognitive conflict, either facilitating or impairing response accuracy depending on the suggestion’s contents. Our results also demonstrate a dissociation between placebo-suggestion and non-hypnotic imaginative suggestion

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/133165/1/Magalhaes2013.pdf

 

De la leucotomie à la stimulation électrique profonde : aspects historiques et éthiques de la psychochirurgie

Missa, J.-N. (2013). De la leucotomie à la stimulation électrique profonde : aspects historiques et éthiques de la psychochirurgie. Bulletin d'histoire et d'épistémologie des sciences de la vie, 20(1), 103-120.  

 

Biodiversité, philosophie transhumaniste et Avenir de l'homme

Missa, J.-N. (2013). Biodiversité, philosophie transhumaniste et Avenir de l'homme. Revista colombiana de bioetica, 8(1), 77-88.  

 

Biodiversidad, filosofia transhumanista y el futuro del hombre

Missa, J.-N. (2013). Biodiversidad, filosofia transhumanista y el futuro del hombre. Revista colombiana de bioetica, 8(1), 65-76.  

 

2012

Decision making under ambiguity but not under risk is related to problem gambling severity.

Brevers, D., Cleeremans, A., Goudriaan, A. E., Bechara, A., Kornreich, C., Verbanck, P., & Noël, X. (2012). Decision making under ambiguity but not under risk is related to problem gambling severity. Psychiatry research, 200(2-3), 568-574. doi:10.1016/j.psychres.2012.03.053  

The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between problem gambling severity and decision-making situations that vary in two degrees of uncertainty (probability of outcome is known: decision-making under risk; probability of outcome is unknown: decision-making under ambiguity). For this purpose, we recruited 65 gamblers differing in problem gambling severity and 35 normal controls. Decision-making under ambiguity was assessed with the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) and the Card Playing Task (CPT). Decision-making under risk was assessed with the Coin Flipping Task (CFT) and the Cups Task. In addition, we included an examination of two working memory components (verbal storage and dual tasking). Results show that problem gamblers performed worse than normal controls on both ambiguous and risky decision-making. Higher problem gambling severity scores were associated with poorer performance on ambiguous decision-making tasks (IGT and CPT) but not decision-making under risk. Additionally, we found that dual task performance correlated positively with decision-making under risk (CFT and Cups tasks) but not with decision-making under ambiguity (IGT and CPT). These results suggest that impairments in decision-making under uncertain conditions of problem gamblers may represent an important neurocognitive mechanism in the maintenance of their problem gambling.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/138009/1/pdfmain.pdf

 

Lateralized implicit sequence learning in uni- and bi-manual conditions.

Schmitz, R., Pasquali, A., Cleeremans, A., & Peigneux, P. (2012). Lateralized implicit sequence learning in uni- and bi-manual conditions. Brain and cognition, 81(1), 1-9. doi:10.1016/j.bandc.2012.09.002  

It has been proposed that the right hemisphere (RH) is better suited to acquire novel material whereas the left hemisphere (LH) is more able to process well-routinized information. Here, we ask whether this potential dissociation also manifests itself in an implicit learning task. Using a lateralized version of the serial reaction time task (SRT), we tested whether participants trained in a divided visual field condition primarily stimulating the RH would learn the implicit regularities embedded in sequential material faster than participants in a condition favoring LH processing. In the first study, half of participants were presented sequences in the left (vs. right) visual field, and had to respond using their ipsilateral hand (unimanual condition), hence making visuo-motor processing possible within the same hemisphere. Results showed successful implicit sequence learning, as indicated by increased reaction time for a transfer sequence in both hemispheric conditions and lack of conscious knowledge in a generation task. There was, however, no evidence of interhemispheric differences. In the second study, we hypothesized that a bimanual response version of the lateralized SRT, which requires interhemispheric communication and increases computational and cognitive processing loads, would favor RH-dependent visuospatial/attentional processes. In this bimanual condition, our results revealed a much higher transfer effect in the RH than in the LH condition, suggesting higher RH sensitivity to the processing of novel sequential material. This LH/RH difference was interpreted within the framework of the Novelty-Routinization model [Goldberg, E., & Costa, L. D. (1981). Hemisphere differences in the acquisition and use of descriptive systems. Brain and Language, 14(1), 144-173] and interhemispheric interactions in attentional processing [Banich, M. T. (1998). The missing link: the role of interhemispheric interaction in attentional processing. Brain and Cognition, 36(2), 128-157].

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/133816/1/Elsevier_116225.pdf

 

Impaired Metacognitive Capacities in Individuals with Problem Gambling.

Brevers, D., Cleeremans, A., Bechara, A., Greisen, M., Kornreich, C., Verbanck, P., & Noël, X. (2012). Impaired Metacognitive Capacities in Individuals with Problem Gambling. Journal of gambling studies. doi:10.1007/s10899-012-9348-3  

Impaired insight into behavior may be one of the clinical characteristics of pathological gambling. In the present study, we tested whether the capacity to evaluate accurately the quality of one's own decisions during a non-gambling task was impaired in problem gamblers. Twenty-five problem gamblers and 25 matched healthy participants performed an artificial grammar-learning paradigm, in which the quality of choice remains uncertain throughout the task. After each trial of this task, participants had to indicate how confident they were in the grammaticality judgements using a scale ranging from 1 (low confidence) to 7 (high confidence). Results showed that (i), problem gamblers' performance on the grammaticality test was lower than controls'; (ii) there was a significant correlation between grammaticality judgments and confidence for control participants, which indicates metacognitive insight and the presence of conscious knowledge; (iii) this correlation was not significant in problem gamblers, which suggests a disconnection between performance and confidence in this group. These findings suggest that problem gamblers are impaired in their metacognitive abilities on a non-gambling task, which suggests that compulsive gambling is associated with poor insight as a general factor. Clinical interventions tailored to improve metacognition in gambling could be a fruitful avenue of research in order to prevent pathological gambling.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/138001/1/pdfgram.pdf

 

Subjective measures of consciousness in artificial grammar learning task

Wierzchoń, M., Asanowicz, D., Paulewicz, B., & Cleeremans, A. (2012). Subjective measures of consciousness in artificial grammar learning task. Consciousness and cognition, 21(3), 1141-1153. doi:10.1016/j.concog.2012.05.012  

Consciousness can be measured in various ways, but different measures often yield different conclusions about the extent to which awareness relates to performance. Here, we compare five different subjective measures of awareness in the context of an artificial grammar learning task. Participants (N= 217) expressed their subjective awareness of rules using one of five different scales: confidence ratings (CRs), post-decision wagering (PDW), feeling of warmth (FOW), rule awareness (RAS), and continuous scale (SDS). All scales were equally sensitive to conscious knowledge. PDW, however, was affected by risk aversion, and both RAS and SDS applied different minimal criteria for rule awareness. CR seems to capture the largest range of consciousness, but failed to indicate unconscious knowledge with the guessing criterion. We close by discussing the theoretical implications of scale sensitivity and propose that CR's unique features enable (in conjunction with RAS and FOW) a finer assessment of subjective states of awareness. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/168301/1/Elsevier_151931.pdf

 

The influence of articulatory suppression on the control of implicit sequence knowledge

Gaillard, V., Destrebecqz, A., & Cleeremans, A. (2012). The influence of articulatory suppression on the control of implicit sequence knowledge. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 6, 208, 1-9. doi:10.3389/fnhum.2012.00208  

The present study investigated the consciousness-control relationship by suppressing the possibility to exert executive control on incidentally acquired knowledge. Participants first learned a sequence of locations through a serial reaction time (SRT) task. Next, to assess the extent to which the incidentally acquired knowledge was available to executive control, they were asked both to generate the learned sequence under inclusion instructions, and then to avoid the generation of the learned sequence under exclusion instructions. We manipulated the possibility for participants to recruit control processes in the generation task in three different conditions. In addition to a control condition, participants generated sequences under inclusion and exclusion concurrently with either articulatory suppression or foot tapping. In a final recognition task, participants reacted to old vs. new short sequences (triplets), and judged, for each sequence, whether it had been presented before or not. Results suggest that articulatory suppression specifically impairs exclusion performance by interfering with inner speech. Because participants were nevertheless able to successfully recognize fragments of the training sequence in the recognition task, this is indicative of a dissociation between control and recognition memory. In other words, this study suggests that executive control and consciousness might not be associated in all circumstances.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/176030/1/2012-Gaillard_et_al.pdf

 

Higher order thoughts in action: Consciousness as an unconscious re-description process

Timmermans, B., Schilbach, L., Pasquali, A., & Cleeremans, A. (2012). Higher order thoughts in action: Consciousness as an unconscious re-description process. Philosophical transactions - Royal Society. Biological Sciences, 367(1594), 1412-1423. doi:10.1098/rstb.2011.0421  

Metacognition is usually construed as a conscious, intentional process whereby people reflect upon their own mental activity. Here, we instead suggest that metacognition is but an instance of a larger class of representational re-description processes that we assume occur unconsciously and automatically. From this perspective, the brain continuously and unconsciously learns to anticipate the consequences of action or activity on itself, on the world and on other people through three predictive loops: an inner loop, a perception-action loop and a self-other (social cognition) loop, which together form a tangled hierarchy.We ask what kinds of mechanisms may subtend this form of enactive metacognition. We extend previous neural network simulations and compare the model with signal detection theory, highlighting that while the latter approach assumes that both type I (objective) and type II (subjective, metacognition-based) decisions tap into the same signal at different hierarchical levels, our approach is closer to dual-route models in which it is assumed that the re-descriptions made possible by the emergence of meta-representations occur independently and outside of the firstorder causal chain.We close by reviewing relevant neurological evidence for the idea that awareness, self-awareness and social cognition involve the same mechanisms. © 2012 The Royal Society.

 

Subliminal behavioral priming: It is all in the mind, but whose mind?

Doyen, S., Klein, O., Pichon, C.-L., & Cleeremans, A. (2012). Subliminal behavioral priming: It is all in the mind, but whose mind? PloS one, 7(1). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0029081  

Amorçage comportemental : produit de l'esprit, mais de l'esprit que qui au juste ? Il est nécessaire de mettre à jour le paradigme d'amorçage comportemental : le comportement des participants peut en effet être influencé par des déterminants non conscients, mais les attentes des expérimentateurs jouent aussi un rôle certain. L'amorçage comportemental, technique par laquelle le comportement est altéré par l'induction d'influences subconscientes fait date en psychologie. Mais, une étude récente montre que les déterminants de cette situation sont différents de ce qui était typiquement admis : les attentes des expérimentateurs jouent également un rôle crucial dans l'expression de l'effet d'amorçage. Ces résultats sont présentés dans l'édition du 18 janvier du journal PLoS One http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0029081. L'étude conduite par Stéphane Doyen et ses collaborateurs de l'Université Libre de Bruxelles avait pour objectif la réplication d'une expérience princeps d'amorçage comportemental réalisée pour la première fois en 1996. Au cours de celle-ci, les auteurs testèrent si mener subconsciemment des participants à penser au concept de vieillesse entrainerait une diminution subséquente de leur vitesse de marche. Ces participants s'étaient portés volontaires pour participer à une simple tâche de mise en bon ordre des phrases mélangées comportant toutes un mot de nature particulière. Pourtant, la mesure retenue ici par les expérimentateurs était la vitesse à laquelle ceux-ci marchaient lorsqu'ils quittaient le laboratoire. Ces chercheurs ont montré que ces mots de nature particulière, relatifs au concept de vieillesse, avaient amorcé chez ces participants ce même concept et les avaient amenés à marcher plus lentement. Cependant, dans cette nouvelle étude, les chercheurs de l'Université Libre de Bruxelles ont trouvé que cet effet d'amorçage n'était présent que lorsque les croyances des expérimentateurs étaient modifiées de telle sorte qu'ils attendent à observer une marche ralentie chez les sujets qu'ils testent. Les auteurs de l'étude insistent sur le fait qu'il ne s'agit pas uniquement d'un effet de prévision créatrice, mais plutôt de la démonstration de l'intégration d'informations contextuelles subtiles dans la régulation de nos comportements sociaux automatiques, telle que les attentes des expérimentateurs, qui, de concours avec l'amorçage initié par les phrases mélangées on altéré le comportement des participants.

 

The validity of d' measures.

Vermeiren, A., & Cleeremans, A. (2012). The validity of d' measures. PloS one, 7(2), e31595. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0031595  

Subliminal perception occurs when prime stimuli that participants claim not to be aware of nevertheless influence subsequent processing of a target. This claim, however, critically depends on correct methods to assess prime awareness. Typically, d' ("d prime") tasks administered after a priming task are used to establish that people are unable to discriminate between different primes. Here, we show that such d' tasks are influenced by the nature of the target, by attentional factors, and by the delay between stimulus presentation and response. Our results suggest that the standard d' task is not a straightforward measure of prime visibility. We discuss the implications of our findings for subliminal perception research.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/151544/4/doi_135920.pdf

 

Low Hopes, High Expectations

Klein, O., Doyen, S., Leys, C., Magalhaes De Saldanha D, P., Miller, S., Questienne, L., & Cleeremans, A. (2012). Low Hopes, High Expectations: Expectancy Effects and the Replicability of behavioral Experiments. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 7(6), 572-584. doi:10.1177/1745691612463704  

This article revisits two classical issues in experimental methodology: experimenter bias and demand characteristics. We report a content analysis of the method section of experiments reported in two psychology journals (Psychological Science and the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology), focusing on aspects of the procedure associated with these two phenomena, such as mention of the presence of the experimenter, suspicion probing, and handling of deception. We note that such information is very often absent, which prevents observers from gauging the extent to which such factors influence the results. We consider the reasons that may explain this omission, including the automatization of psychology experiments, the evolution of research topics, and, most important, a view of research participants as passive receptacles of stimuli. Using a situated social cognition perspective, we emphasize the importance of integrating the social context of experiments in the explanation of psychological phenomena. We illustrate this argument via a controversy on stereotype-based behavioralpriming effects.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/129110/1/PPS463704.pdf

 

Impulsive action but not impulsive choice determines problem gambling severity.

Brevers, D., Cleeremans, A., Verbruggen, F., Bechara, A., Kornreich, C., Verbanck, P., & Noël, X. (2012). Impulsive action but not impulsive choice determines problem gambling severity. PloS one, 7(11), e50647. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0050647  

Impulsivity is a hallmark of problem gambling. However, impulsivity is not a unitary construct and this study investigated the relationship between problem gambling severity and two facets of impulsivity: impulsive action (impaired ability to withhold a motor response) and impulsive choice (abnormal aversion for the delay of reward).

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/137995/4/doi_120916.pdf

 

Impaired Self-Awareness in Pathological Gamblers.

Brevers, D., Cleeremans, A., Bechara, A., Greisen, M., Kornreich, C., Verbanck, P., & Noël, X. (2012). Impaired Self-Awareness in Pathological Gamblers. Journal of gambling studies. doi:10.1007/s10899-012-9292-2  

Lack of self-awareness of one's decisions remains an understudied and elusive topic in the addiction literature. The present study aimed at taking a first step towards addressing this difficult subject through the use of a combination of behavioral procedures. Here, we explored the association between a metacognitive process (the ability to reflect and evaluate the awareness of one's own decision) and poor performance on the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) in a group of pathological gamblers (PG; n = 30), and in a comparison group (n = 35). This metacognitive process was assessed during the IGT with the post-decision wagering procedure, while a number of potential confounds (i.e., reward/loss sensitivity, dual-tasking) were controlled for. Results showed that: (1) Initial performance enhancement of the control group on IGT occurred without explicit knowledge of the task, thus confirming its implicit character; (2) compared to controls, performance of PG on the IGT failed to increase during the task; (3) taking into account increased reward sensitivity and decreased loss sensitivity as well as poorer dual-tasking in pathological gamblers, PG tended to exhibit a bias in evaluating their own performance on the IGT by maximizing their wagers independently of selecting advantageous decks. Our findings suggest that biased metacognition may affect pathological gamblers, leading to disadvantageous post-decision wagering, which is in turn linked to impaired decision making under ambiguity. Perhaps this deficit reflects the impaired insight and self-awareness that many addicts suffer from, thus providing a novel approach for capturing and measuring this impairment, and for investigating its possible causes.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/138010/1/pdfigt.pdf

 

Belgian norms for the Waterloo-Stanford Group C (WSGC) Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility.

Ma, C., Davy, T., & Cleeremans, A. (2012). Belgian norms for the Waterloo-Stanford Group C (WSGC) Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility. International journal of clinical and experimental hypnosis, 60(3), 356-369. doi:10.1080/00207144.2012.675299  

ABSTRACT:Belgian norms of the Waterloo-Stanford Group C Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility (WSGC) are presented. A French translation of the WSGC was administered to 150 Belgium college students between October and December 2009. Belgium has 2 main linguistic groups, Dutch and French speakers. The present translation was conceived for all French-speaking populations. Score distribution, item analysis, and reliability of the WSGC are presented and compared to the normative sample of the WSGC. The results were also compared with 2 North American norms (University of Connecticut and Seton Hall University) and a Portuguese (translated) norm. The findings show that normative data from the French (Belgium) sample are in line with the reference samples. The only significant difference was the lower proportion of participants scoring within the high range of hypnotic suggestibility on the WSGC.

 

When fake becomes truth: placebo-suggestion modulates conflict adaptation in the Stroop Task

Magalhaes De Saldanha D, P., Slama, H., Gevers, W., & Cleeremans, A. (2012). When fake becomes truth: placebo-suggestion modulates conflict adaptation in the Stroop Task. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience., Conference Abstract: Belgian Brain Council. doi:10.3389/conf.fnhum.2012.210.00048  
https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/176701/3/MagalhaesManuscript.pdf

 

Manipulating attentional load in sequence learning through random number generation

Wierzchon, M., Gaillard, V., Asanowicz, D., & Cleeremans, A. (2012). Manipulating attentional load in sequence learning through random number generation. Advances in Cognitive Psychology, 8(2), 179-195. doi:10.2478/v10053-008-0114-0  

Implicit learning is often assumed to be an effortless process. However, some artificial grammar learning and sequence learning studies using dual tasks seem to suggest that attention is essential for implicit learning to occur. This discrepancy probably results from the specific type of secondary task that is used. Different secondary tasks may engage attentional resources differently and therefore may bias performance on the primary task in different ways. Here, we used a random number generation (RNGRNGRNG) task, which may allow for a closer monitoring of a participant's engagement in a secondary task than the popular secondary task in sequence learning studies: tone counting (TCTC). In the first two experiments, we investigated the interference associated with performing RNG concurrently with a serial reaction time (SRTSRT) task. In a third experiment, we compared the effects of RNGRNGRNG and TCTC. In all three experiments, we directly evaluated participants' knowledge of the sequence with a subsequent sequence generation task. Sequence learning was consistently observed in all experiments, but was impaired under dual-task conditions. Most importantly, our data suggest that RNG is more demanding and impairs learning to a greater extent than TCTC. Nevertheless, we failed to observe effects of the secondary task in subsequent sequence generation. Our studies indicate that RNG is a promising task to explore the involvement of attention in the SRTSRT task.

 

2011

Time course of attentional bias for gambling information in problem gambling.

Brevers, D., Cleeremans, A., Bechara, A., Laloyaux, C., Kornreich, C., Verbanck, P., & Noël, X. (2011). Time course of attentional bias for gambling information in problem gambling. Psychology of addictive behaviors, 25(4), 675-682. doi:10.1037/a0024201  

There is a wealth of evidence showing enhanced attention toward drug-related information (i.e., attentional bias) in substance abusers. However, little is known about attentional bias in deregulated behaviors without substance use such as abnormal gambling. This study examined whether problem gamblers (PrG, as assessed through self-reported gambling-related craving and gambling dependence severity) exhibit attentional bias for gambling-related cues. Forty PrG and 35 control participants performed a change detection task using the flicker paradigm, in which two images differing in only one aspect are repeatedly flashed on the screen until the participant is able to report the changing item. In our study, the changing item was either neutral or related to gambling. Eye movements were recorded, which made it possible to measure both initial orienting of attention as well as its maintenance on gambling information. Direct (eye-movements) and indirect (change in detection latency) measures of attention in individuals with problematic gambling behaviors suggested the occurrence of both engagement and of maintenance attentional biases toward gambling-related visual cues. Compared to nonproblematic gamblers, PrG exhibited (a) faster reaction times to gambling-cues as compared to neutral cues, (b) higher percentage of initial saccades directed toward gambling pictures, and (c) an increased fixation duration and fixation count on gambling pictures. In the PrG group, measures of gambling-related attentional bias were not associated with craving for gambling and gambling dependence severity. Theoretical and clinical implications of these results are discussed.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/138011/1/pdfflicker.pdf

 

Measuring consciousness: Task accuracy and awareness as sigmoid functions of stimulus duration

Sandberg, K., Bibby, B. M., Timmermans, B., Cleeremans, A., & Overgaard, M. (2011). Measuring consciousness: Task accuracy and awareness as sigmoid functions of stimulus duration. Consciousness and cognition, 20(4), 1659-1675. doi:10.1016/j.concog.2011.09.002  

When consciousness is examined using subjective ratings, the extent to which processing is conscious or unconscious is often estimated by calculating task performance at the subjective threshold or by calculating the correlation between accuracy and awareness. However, both these methods have certain limitations. In the present article, we propose describing task accuracy and awareness as functions of stimulus intensity (thus obtaining an accuracy and an awareness curve) as suggested by Koch and Preuschoff (2007). The estimated lag between the curves describes how much stimulus intensity must increase for awareness to change proportionally as much as accuracy and the slopes of the curves are used to assess how fast accuracy and awareness increases and whether awareness is dichotomous. The method is successfully employed to assess consciousness characteristics on data from four different awareness scales. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/169138/1/Elsevier_152768.pdf

 

Statistical learning of two artificial languages presented successively : How conscious

Franco, A., Cleeremans, A., & Destrebecqz, A. (2011). Statistical learning of two artificial languages presented successively : How conscious. Frontiers in Psychology, 2, 229. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2011.00229  

Statistical learning is assumed to occur automatically and implicitly, but little is known about the extent to which the representations acquired over training are available to conscious awareness. In this study, we focus on whether the knowledge acquired in a statistical learning situation is available to conscious control. Participants were first exposed to an artificial language presented auditorily. Immediately thereafter, they were exposed to a sec- ond artificial language. Both languages were composed of the same corpus of syllables and differed only in the transitional probabilities. We first determined that both languages were equally learnable (Experiment 1) and that participants could learn the two languages and differentiate between them (Experiment 2). Then, in Experiment 3, we used an adaptation of the Process-Dissociation Procedure (Jacoby, 1991) to explore whether participants could consciously manipulate the acquired knowledge. Results suggest that statistical informa- tion can be used to parse and differentiate between two different artificial languages, and that the resulting representations are available to conscious control.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/71500/1/11-Francoetal.pdf

 

Reduced attentional blink for gambling-related stimuli in problem gamblers.

Brevers, D., Cleeremans, A., Tibboel, H., Bechara, A., Kornreich, C., Verbanck, P., & Noël, X. (2011). Reduced attentional blink for gambling-related stimuli in problem gamblers. Journal of behavior therapy and experimental psychiatry, 42(3), 265-269. doi:10.1016/j.jbtep.2011.01.005  

Although there is considerable information concerning the attentional biases in psychoactive substance use and misuse, much less is known about the contribution of attentional processing in problem gambling. The aim of this study was to examine whether problem gamblers (PrG) exhibit attentional bias at the level of the encoding processing stage. Forty PrG and 35 controls participated in an attentional blink (AB) paradigm in which they were required to identify both gambling and neutral words that appeared in a rapid serial visual presentation. Explicit motivation (e.g., intrinsic/arousal, extrinsic, amotivation) toward the gambling cues was recorded. A diminished AB effect for gambling-related words compared to neutral targets was identified in PrG. In contrast, AB was similar when either gambling-related or neutral words were presented to controls. Furthermore, there was a significant positive correlation between the reduced AB for gambling-related words and the sub-score of intrinsic/arousal motivation to gamble in PrG. Such findings suggest that the PrG group exhibits an enhanced ability to process gambling-related information, which is associated with their desire to gamble for arousal reasons. Theoretical and clinical implications of these results are discussed.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/138244/4/Elsevier_121184.pdf

 

Dopage sportif et médecine d'amélioration.

Missa, J.-N. (2011). Dopage sportif et médecine d'amélioration. Journal international de bioéthique, 22(3-4), 93-121, 196-197. doi:10.3917/jib.222.0093  

The reason that gives doping in sport a deeper philosophical and ethical dimension is the emergence of a new medical paradigm: enhancement medicine. The question of enhancing performance in sport has become part of a broader societal debate on human enhancement. The gradual blurriness of the boarders between therapeutic medicine and enhancement medicine constitutes the most spectacular and the most troublesome form of these modifications. In the contemporary biomedicine, the new medicines and technologies can be used not only to cure the patients but also to enhance human capacities. This evolution represents a paradigmatic change in the medical practice: it is not the mere restoration of health which is expected anymore, nor the promotion of health. What is required is the improvement of performance and the perfectibility of the human being, including in the field of sport. Competitive sport could become the main laboratory of enhancement medicine. The intersection of science and sport raises fundamental philosophical, ethical and policy issues that cannot be answered easily. The prohibition and the war on doping is not the only solution.

 

Human enhancement. Foreword.

Goffi, J.-Y., & Missa, J.-N. (2011). Human enhancement. Foreword. Journal international de bioéthique, 22(3-4), 15-6, 13-4.  

 

Long-lasting effect of subliminal processes on cardiovascular responses and performance

Capa, R., Cleeremans, A., Bustin, G. G., & Hansenne, M. (2011). Long-lasting effect of subliminal processes on cardiovascular responses and performance. International journal of psychophysiology, 81(1), 22-30. doi:10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2011.04.001  

Students were exposed to a priming task in which subliminal representations of the goal of studying were directly paired (priming-positive group) or not (priming group) to positive words. A control group without subliminal prime of the goal was added. Just after the priming task, students performed an easy or a difficult learning task based on their coursework. Participants in the priming-positive group performed better and had a stronger decrease of pulse transit time and pulse wave amplitude reactivity than participants of the two other groups, but only during the difficult condition. Results suggested that subliminal priming induces effortful behavior extending over twenty five minutes but only when the primes had been associated with visible positive words acting as a reward. These findings provide evidence that subliminal priming can have long-lasting effects on behaviors typical of daily life. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/169503/1/Elsevier_153133.pdf

 

Contraindre pour le bien

Daled, P.-F. (2011). Contraindre pour le bien: Approches éthiques. Science & sports, 26(3), 119-126. doi:10.1016/j.scispo.2011.01.002  

Aim: The theme of " physical activity" and the " health of the very young" illustrates the ethical dilemma of Restraint for well-being. Current: In order to set out the possible ethical justifications of this constraint, we shall initially advance two diametrically opposed points of view: the opponents (Brohm, Partisans, Quel corps ?, Gleyse), and the partisans (Laure, Pes) of the idea whereby physical activity is intrinsically " virtuous" Secondly, the testimony of a very high level sportsman is invoked (Agassi) who was constrained to engage in intensive physical activity from the youngest age. Thirdly, using as a starting point the Principles of Biomedical Ethics (1979) by Beauchamp and Childress, we advance the ethical arguments (the principle of beneficence, paternalism...) which can underlie the fact of wishing to constrain the very young to pursue physical activity for their own good. © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/94669/3/Elsevier_73455.pdf

 

La médecine doit-elle encourager le dopage ?

Missa, J.-N. (2011). La médecine doit-elle encourager le dopage ?: L'idéal de l'ingénieur en biomédecine et la question de l'amélioration de l'humain. Bulletin et mémoires de l'Académie royale de médecine de Belgique, 166(1-2), 49-58.  

 

Effects of subliminal priming on nonconscious goal pursuit and effort-related cardiovascular response

Capa, R., Cleeremans, A., Bustin, G., Bouquet, C., & Hansenne, M. (2011). Effects of subliminal priming on nonconscious goal pursuit and effort-related cardiovascular response. Social cognition, 29, 430-444.  

Building on the work of Aarts and coworkers on nonconscious goal pursuit, the present studyinvestigates whether subliminal processes may motivate effortful behavior and perseverance to learn coursework. We exposed students to a priming task in which subliminal representation of the goal of studying was directly paired (priming-positive group) or not (priming group) to a positive word. There was also a control group without subliminal prime of the goal. Next, students performed a learning task based on their coursework. Participants in the priming-positive group exhibited across time on task a larger decrease of midfrequency band of heart rate variability and a larger decrease of the pulse transit time related to effort mobilization than participants in the control group and the priming group, respectively. These findings provide the first evidence that subliminal priming can induce a greater cardiovascular reactivity suggesting effortful behavior and perseverance when pursuing a simple goal typical of daily life.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/116697/1/11-Capaetal-SC.pdf

 

Distinguishing three levels in explicit self-awareness

Legrain, L., Cleeremans, A., & Destrebecqz, A. (2011). Distinguishing three levels in explicit self-awareness. Consciousness and cognition.  

This paper focuses on the development of explicit self-awareness in children. Mirror self- recognition has been the most popular paradigm used to assess this ability in children. Nevertheless, according to Rochat (2003), there are, at least, three different levels of explicit self-awareness. We therefore designed three different self-recognition tasks, each corre- sponding to one of these levels (a mirror self-recognition task, a picture self-recognition task and a masked self-recognition task). We observed a decrease in performance across the three tasks. This supports a developmental scale in self-awareness. Besides, the masked self-recog- nition performance makes it possible to assess the final and the most sophisticated level of self-awareness, i.e. the external self. To our best knowledge, this task is the first attempt to evaluate the external self in preverbal children. Our results indicate that 22-month old children show awareness of their external self or, at least, that this ability is in the process of being acquired.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/70020/1/3 levels of self awareness.pdf

 

Conscious and unconscious reward cues can affect a critical component of executive control: (Un)conscious updating?

Capa, R., Bustin, G., Cleeremans, A., & Hansenne, M. (2011). Conscious and unconscious reward cues can affect a critical component of executive control: (Un)conscious updating? Experimental psychology.  

 

The radical plasticity thesis: How the brain learns to be conscious

Cleeremans, A. (2011). The radical plasticity thesis: How the brain learns to be conscious. Frontiers in Psychology, 2(MAY), Article 86. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2011.00086  

In this paper, I explore the idea that consciousness is something that the brain learns to do rather than an intrinsic property of certain neural states and not others. Starting from the idea that neural activity is inherently unconscious, the question thus becomes: How does the brain learn to be conscious? I suggest that consciousness arises as a result of the brain's continuous attempts at predicting not only the consequences of its actions on the world and on other agents, but also the consequences of activity in one cerebral region on activity in other regions. By this account, the brain continuously and unconsciously learns to redescribe its own activity to itself, so developing systems of meta-representations that characterize and qualify the target firstorder representations. Such learned redescriptions, enriched by the emotional value associated with them, form the basis of conscious experience. Learning and plasticity are thus central to consciousness, to the extent that experiences only occur in experiencers that have learned to know they possess certain first-order states and that have learned to care more about certain states than about others. This is what I call the "Radical Plasticity Thesis." In a sense thus, this is the enactive perspective, but turned both inwards and (further) outwards. Consciousness involves "signal detection on the mind"; the conscious mind is the brain's (non-conceptual, implicit) theory about itself. I illustrate these ideas through neural network models that simulate the relationships between performance and awareness in different tasks. © 2011 Cleeremans.

 

Sport, enhancement and the inefficacy of the anti-doping policy

Missa, J.-N. (2011). Sport, enhancement and the inefficacy of the anti-doping policy. Bioethica Forum, 1, 14-16.  

 

2010

Partial awareness distinguishes between measuring conscious perception and conscious content: Reply to Dienes and Seth

Timmermans, B., Cleeremans, A., Sandberg, K., & Overgaard, M. (2010). Partial awareness distinguishes between measuring conscious perception and conscious content: Reply to Dienes and Seth. Consciousness and cognition, 19(4), 1081-1083. doi:10.1016/j.concog.2010.05.006  

In their comment on Sandberg, Timmermans, Overgaard, and Cleeremans (2010), Dienes and Seth argue that increased sensitivity of the Perceptual Awareness Scale (PAS) is a consequence of the scale being less exclusive rather than more exhaustive. According to Dienes and Seth, this is because PAS may measure some conscious content, though not necessarily relevant conscious content, "If one saw a square but was only aware of seeing a flash of something, then one has not consciously seen a square." In this reply, we claim that there is a difference between conscious visual experience, which may be partial, and the resulting conscious content, which is conceptual. Whereas PAS measures the first, confidence judgments and post-decision wagering measure the second. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/204332/1/Elsevier_187959.pdf

 

Experiencing more complexity than we can tell

Timmermans, B., Windey, B., & Cleeremans, A. (2010). Experiencing more complexity than we can tell. Journal of cognitive neuroscience, 1(3), 229-230. doi:10.1080/17588928.2010.497586  

The notion of unreportable conscious contents is misguidedly premised on the idea that access necessarily follows phenomenal representation. We suggest instead that conscious experience should be viewed as a constructive, dynamical process that involves representational redescription: The brain continuously and unconsciously performs signal detection on its own representations, so developing an understanding of itself that subtends conscious experience. Cases where phenomenality seems to overflow access are thus illusory and depend on interactions between task instructions and stimulus complexity. We support this perspective through recent evidence suggesting that properly graded, qualitative subjective reports appear to be exhaustive in revealing conscious knowledge.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/108967/1/Timmermans… 2010 - PCNS - Experiencing more complexity than we.pdf

 

Measuring consciousness: Is one measure better than the other?

Sandberg, K., Timmermans, B., Overgaard, M., & Cleeremans, A. (2010). Measuring consciousness: Is one measure better than the other? Consciousness and cognition, 19, 1069-1078. doi:10.1016/j.concog.2009.12.013  

What is the best way of assessing the extent to which people are aware of a stimulus? Here, using a masked visual identification task, we compared three measures of subjective awareness: The Perceptual Awareness Scale (PAS), through which participants are asked to rate the clarity of their visual experience; confidence ratings (CR), through which participants express their confidence in their identification decisions, and Post-decision wagering (PDW), in which participants place a monetary wager on their decisions. We conducted detailed explorations of the relationships between awareness and identification performance, looking to determine (1) which scale best correlates with performance, and (2) whether we can detect performance in the absence of awareness and how the scales differ from each other in terms of revealing such unconscious processing. Based on these findings we discuss whether perceptual awareness should be considered graded or dichotomous. Results showed that PAS showed a much stronger performance-awareness correlation than either CR or PDW, particularly for low stimulus intensities. In general, all scales indicated above-chance performance when participants claimed not to have seen anything. However, such above-chance performance only showed when we also observed a correlation between awareness and performance. Thus (1) PAS seems to be the most exhaustive measure of awareness, and (2) we find support for above-chance performance in the absence of subjective awareness, but such unconscious knowledge only contributes to performance when we observe conscious knowledge as well. Similarities and differences between scales are discussed in the light of consciousness theories and response strategies.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/52932/1/Elsevier_28193.pdf

 

The influence of temporal factors on automatic priming and conscious expectancy in a simple reaction time task.

Destrebecqz, A., Perruchet, P., Cleeremans, A., Laureys, S., Maquet, P., & Peigneux, P. (2010). The influence of temporal factors on automatic priming and conscious expectancy in a simple reaction time task. The quarterly journal of experimental psychology, 63(2), 291-309. doi:10.1080/17470210902888932  

In a previous study, we reported a dissociation between subjective expectancy and motor behaviour in a simple associative learning task (Perruchet, Cleeremans, & Destrebecqz, 2006). According to previous conditioning studies (Clark, Manns, & Squire, 2001), this dissociation is observed when the to-be-associated events coterminate and thus overlap in time (a training regimen called delay conditioning), but not when they are separated by a temporal delay (trace conditioning). In this latter situation indeed, there tends to be a direct relationship between subjective expectancy and behaviour. In this study, we further investigated this issue in a series of experiments where conscious and unconscious components of performance were pitted against each other. In Experiments 1-3, participants performed a simple reaction time task in which a preparatory signal (a tone) either overlapped with or terminated earlier than the imperative stimulus (a visual target presented in 50% of the trials). After each response, participants also had to state how much they expected the imperative stimulus to be displayed on the next trial. Results indicate that reaction times tend to decrease when the tone is consistently followed by the visual target across successive trials, whereas conscious expectancy for the target decreases at the same time. Importantly, we systematically found that the temporal relationship between the tone and the target failed to influence performance. In a fourth experiment, we examined whether these results extend to a two-choice reaction time task. To our surprise, we observed a direct relationship between subjective expectancies and reaction time in that situation. We nevertheless observed that the introduction of a delay between the tone and the target had, once again, no effect on performance.

 

Is it better to think unconsciously or to trust your first impression?

Waroquier, L., Marchiori, D., Klein, O., & Cleeremans, A. (2010). Is it better to think unconsciously or to trust your first impression?: A reassessment of Unconscious Thought Theory. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 1(2), 111-118. doi:10.1177/1948550609356597  

According to unconscious thought theory, complex decisions are best made after a period of distraction assumed to elicit "unconscious thought." Here, the authors suggest instead that the superiority of decisions made after distraction results from the fact that conscious deliberation can deteriorate impressions formed on-line during information acquisition. The authors found that participants instructed to form an impression made better decisions after distraction than after deliberation, thereby replicating earlier findings. However, decisions made immediately were just as good as decisions made after distraction, which suggests (a) that people had already made their decision during information acquisition, (b) that deliberation without attention does not occur during distraction, and (c) that ruminating about one's first impression can deteriorate decision quality. Strikingly, in another condition that should have favored unconscious thought even more, deliberated decisions were better than immediate or distracted decisions. These findings were replicated in a field study. © The Author(s) 2010.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/55406/1/Waroquier_et_SPPS.pdf

 

Action blindness in response to gradual changes.

Berberian, B., Chambaron, S., & Cleeremans, A. (2010). Action blindness in response to gradual changes. Consciousness and cognition. doi:10.1016/j.concog.2010.01.002  

The goal of this study is to characterize observers' abilities to detect gradual changes and to explore putative dissociations between conscious experience of change and behavioral adaptation to a changing stimulus. We developed a new experimental paradigm in which, on each trial, participants were shown a dot pattern on the screen. Next, the pattern disappeared and participants had to reproduce it. In some conditions, the target pattern was incrementally rotated over successive trials and participants were either informed or not of this change. We analyzed both awareness of the changes and the dynamics of behavioral adaptation, in a way that makes it possible to assess both variability and accuracy as they change over time. Results indicate a dissociation between change awareness and behavioral adaptation to the changes, and support the notion that unconscious representations of visual stimuli are more precise and detailed than previously suggested. We discuss the implications of these results for theories of change detection.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/52933/1/Elsevier_28192.pdf

 

Optimizing subjective measures of consciousness.

Overgaard, M., Timmermans, B., Sandberg, K., & Cleeremans, A. (2010). Optimizing subjective measures of consciousness. Consciousness and cognition. doi:10.1016/j.concog.2009.12.018  

Dienes and Seth (this issue) conclude that confidence ratings and post-decision wagering are two comparable and recommendable measures of conscious experience. In a recently submitted paper, we have however found that both methods are problematic and seem less suited to measure consciousness than a direct introspective measure. Here, we discuss the methodology and conclusions put forward by Dienes and Seth, and why we think the two experiments end up with so different recommendations.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/52919/1/Elsevier_28191.pdf

 

Endogenous versus exogenous change

Berberian, B., & Cleeremans, A. (2010). Endogenous versus exogenous change: Change detection, self and agency. Consciousness and cognition, 19(1), 198-214. doi:10.1016/j.concog.2009.09.014  

The goal of this study is to characterize observers' abilities to discriminate between endogenous (i.e., self-produced) and exogenous changes. To do so, we developed a new experimental paradigm. On each trial, participants were shown a dot pattern on the screen. Next, the pattern disappeared and participants were to reproduce it. Changes were surreptuously introduced in the stimulus, either by presenting participants anew with the dot pattern they had themselves produced on the previous trial (endogenous change) or by presenting participants with a slightly different dot pattern (exogenous changes). We analyzed awareness of the changes and behavioral adaptation to them in a dynamical manner. We observe (1) signal attenuation in the presence of endogenous change, (2) dissociation between self-attribution reports and behavioral effect of agency. We discuss the source of this sensitive attenuation as well as the relation between a minimal or core self and an extended, narrative or autobiographical self.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/52931/1/Elsevier_28194.pdf

 

Know Thyself

Pasquali, A., Timmermans, B., & Cleeremans, A. (2010). Know Thyself: Metacognitive networks and measures of consciousness. Cognition, 117, 182-190.  

 

Action, observation, et imagerie mentale d'une action

Chambaron, S., Berberian, B., Ginhac, D., Delbecque, L., & Cleeremans, A. (2010). Action, observation, et imagerie mentale d'une action: Peut-on apprendre implicitement dans tous les cas? L'Année Psychologique, 110, 351-364.  

 

Partial awareness distinguishes between conscious perception and conscious content

Timmermans, B., Sandberg, K., Cleeremans, A., & Overgaard, M. (2010). Partial awareness distinguishes between conscious perception and conscious content: Reply to Dienes & Seth. Consciousness and cognition, 19, 1081-1083.  

 

Action, observation and mental imagery

Chambaron, S., Berberian, B., Ginhac, D., Delbecque, L., & Cleeremans, A. (2010). Action, observation and mental imagery: Can one implicitly learn in all cases? L'Année Psychologique, 110(3), 351-364.  

 

Qui suis-je?

Cleeremans, A. (2010). Qui suis-je?: Le libre-arbitre à la lumière des neurosciences. Revue nouvelle, 65(3), 34-40.  

 

Partial awareness distinguishes between conscious perception and conscious

Timmermans, B., Sandberg, K., Cleeremans, A., & Overgaard, M. (2010). Partial awareness distinguishes between conscious perception and conscious: Reply to Dienes & Seth. Consciousness and cognition, 19, 1081-1083.  

When evaluating a measure of awareness, two parameters are of key importance: exhaustiveness and exclusiveness (Reingold & Merikle, 1988). A measure is maximally exhaustive when it detects all conscious knowledge, and it is maximally exclusive when no unconscious knowledge is misclassified as conscious knowledge. In the study of Sandberg, Timmermans, Overgaard, and Cleeremans (2010), we tested three measures of awareness and concluded that since the Perceptual Aware- ness Scale (PAS) was the most sensitive measure, it was also the most exhaustive one, based on the fact that all three mea- sures were equally exclusive. In their comment on the study, Dienes and Seth (2010) dispute the paper's conclusion, arguing that asking participants to report on their visual experience in general instead of on their confidence in having responded correctly incurs the risk of misclassifying unconscious information as conscious. In other words, the higher sensitivity of PAS that Sandberg et al. (2010) observed is a consequence of the scale's weak exclusiveness rather than of its better exhaus- tiveness. According to Dienes and Seth, this is because PAS may reflect conscious contents that are irrelevant to performing the task. They write, ‘‘according to higher order thought theory, the content p of a mental state is conscious only if the par- ticipant is aware of the mental state as having content p (cf. Rosenthal, 2005). If one saw a square but was only aware of seeing a flash of something, then one has not consciously seen a square.” In this reply, we claim that there is a difference between conscious visual experience, which may be partial, and the resulting conscious content, which is conceptual and, at least in the sort of experimental paradigm we have used, dichotomous. Whereas PAS measures the first, confidence judg- ments and post-decision wagering measure the second, as such content forms the basis of participants' judgment knowledge.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/58926/1/10-CCTimmermansetal.pdf

 

The Grand Challenge fo Psychology

Cleeremans, A. (2010). The Grand Challenge fo Psychology: Integrate and fire! Frontiers in Psychology, 1(12), 1-2. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2010.00012  

 

Peut-on parler de militantisme psychopharmacologique?

Missa, J.-N. (2010). Peut-on parler de militantisme psychopharmacologique? Sud Nord, 1(25), 105-120.  

 

2009

Methodological pitfalls of the Unconscious Thought paradigm

Waroquier, L., Marchiori, D., Klein, O., & Cleeremans, A. (2009). Methodological pitfalls of the Unconscious Thought paradigm. Judgment and Decision Making, 4(7), 601-610.  

According to Unconscious Thought Theory (UTT: Dijksterhuis & Nordgren, 2006), complex decisions are best made after a period of distraction assumed to elicit “unconscious thought”. Over three studies, respectively offering a conceptual, an identical and a methodologically improved replication of Dijksterhuis et al. (2006), we reassessed UTT's predictions and dissected the decision task used to demonstrate these predictions. We failed to find any evidence for the benefits of unconscious decision-making. By contrast, we found some evidence that conscious deliberation can lead to better decisions. Further, we identified methodological weaknesses in the UTT decision task: (a) attributes weighting was neglected although attributes were seen as different in importance; (b) the material was not properly counterbalanced; and (c) there was some confusion in the experimental instructions. We propose methodological improvements that address these concerns. Keywords: unconscious thought, conscious thought, decision-making.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/68407/1/Methodological pitfalls of the Unconscious Thought paradigm.pdf

 

Feature Bindings Are Maintained in Visual Short-Term Memory Without Sustained Focused Attention.

Delvenne, J.-F., Cleeremans, A., & Laloyaux, C. (2009). Feature Bindings Are Maintained in Visual Short-Term Memory Without Sustained Focused Attention. Experimental psychology, 57(2), 108-116. doi:10.1027/1618-3169/a000014  

Does the maintenance of feature bindings in visual short-term memory (VSTM) require sustained focused attention? This issue was investigated in three experiments, in which memory for single features (i.e., colors or shapes) was compared with memory for feature bindings (i.e., the link between the color and shape of an object). Attention was manipulated during the memory retention interval with a retro-cue, which allows attention to be directed and focused on a subset of memory items. The retro-cue was presented 700 ms after the offset of the memory display and 700 ms before the onset of the test display. If the maintenance of feature bindings - but not of individual features - in memory requires sustained focused attention, the retro-cue should not affect memory performance. Contrary to this prediction, we found that both memory for feature bindings and memory for individual features were equally improved by the retro-cue. Therefore, this finding does not support the view that the sustained focused attention is needed to properly maintain feature bindings in VSTM.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/52930/1/10-XP.pdf

 

Effects of Age and Practice in sequence learning

Gaillard, V., Destrebecqz, A., Michiels, S., & Cleeremans, A. (2009). Effects of Age and Practice in sequence learning: A graded account of aging, learning and control. European Journal of cognitive psychology, 21, 255-282.  
https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/55178/1/2009-Gaillard_et_al.pdf

 

Computing Consciousness

Timmermans, B., & Cleeremans, A. (2009). Computing Consciousness. {De }Connectie, 4(1), 4-8.  

 

Foreword

Cleeremans, A. (2009). Foreword. Progress in brain research, 117.  

 

Et si le spectateur en savait plus qu'il ne le croit?

Berberian, B., & Cleeremans, A. (2009). Et si le spectateur en savait plus qu'il ne le croit? Pour la science, 377.  

 

2008

Undetected changes in visible stimuli influence subsequent decisions

Laloyaux, C., Devue, C., Doyen, S., David, E., & Cleeremans, A. (2008). Undetected changes in visible stimuli influence subsequent decisions. Consciousness and cognition, 17(3), 646-656. doi:10.1016/j.concog.2007.03.002  

Change blindness-our inability to detect changes in a stimulus-occurs even when the change takes place gradually, without any disruption [Simons, D. J., Franconeri, S. L., & Reimer, R. L. (2000). Change blindness in the absence of a visual disruption. Perception, 29(10), 1143-1154]. Such gradual changes are more difficult to detect than changes that involve a disruption. Using this method, David et al. [David, E., Laloyaux, C., Devue, C., & Cleeremans, A. (in press). Change blindness to gradual changes in facial expressions. Psychologica Belgica] recently showed substantial blindness to changes that involve facial expressions of emotion. In this experiment, we show that people who failed to detect any change in the displays were (1) nevertheless influenced by the changing information in subsequent recognition decisions about which facial expression they had seen, and (2) that their confidence in their decisions was lower after exposure to changing vs. static displays. The findings therefore support the notion that undetected changes that occur in highly salient stimuli may be causally efficacious and influence subsequent behavior. Implications concerning the nature of the representations associated with undetected changes are discussed.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/52927/1/Elsevier_28198.pdf

 

Measuring consciousness: relating behavioural and neurophysiological approaches.

Seth, A. K., Dienes, Z., Cleeremans, A., Overgaard, M., & Pessoa, L. (2008). Measuring consciousness: relating behavioural and neurophysiological approaches. Trends in cognitive sciences, 12(8), 314-321. doi:10.1016/j.tics.2008.04.008  

The resurgent science of consciousness has been accompanied by a recent emphasis on the problem of measurement. Having dependable measures of consciousness is essential both for mapping experimental evidence to theory and for designing perspicuous experiments. Here, we review a series of behavioural and brain-based measures, assessing their ability to track graded consciousness and clarifying how they relate to each other by showing what theories are presupposed by each. We identify possible and actual conflicts among measures that can stimulate new experiments, and we conclude that measures must prove themselves by iteratively building knowledge in the context of theoretical frameworks. Advances in measuring consciousness have implications for basic cognitive neuroscience, for comparative studies of consciousness and for clinical applications.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/52926/3/doi_28199.pdf

 

Seeing without Seeing? Degraded Conscious Vision in a Blindsight Patient.

Overgaard, M., Fehl, K., Mouridsen, K., Bergholt, B., & Cleeremans, A. (2008). Seeing without Seeing? Degraded Conscious Vision in a Blindsight Patient. PloS one, 3(8), e3028. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0003028  

Blindsight patients, whose primary visual cortex is lesioned, exhibit preserved ability to discriminate visual stimuli presented in their "blind" field, yet report no visual awareness hereof. Blindsight is generally studied in experimental investigations of single patients, as very few patients have been given this "diagnosis". In our single case study of patient GR, we ask whether blindsight is best described as unconscious vision, or rather as conscious, yet severely degraded vision. In experiment 1 and 2, we successfully replicate the typical findings of previous studies on blindsight. The third experiment, however, suggests that GR's ability to discriminate amongst visual stimuli does not reflect unconscious vision, but rather degraded, yet conscious vision. As our finding results from using a method for obtaining subjective reports that has not previously used in blindsight studies (but validated in studies of healthy subjects and other patients with brain injury), our results call for a reconsideration of blindsight, and, arguably also of many previous studies of unconscious perception in healthy subjects.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/52928/4/doi_28197.pdf

 

Consciousness: the radical plasticity thesis.

Cleeremans, A. (2008). Consciousness: the radical plasticity thesis. Progress in brain research, 168, 19-33. doi:10.1016/S0079-6123(07)68003-0  

In this chapter, I sketch a conceptual framework which takes it as a starting point that conscious and unconscious cognition are rooted in the same set of interacting learning mechanisms and representational systems. On this view, the extent to which a representation is conscious depends in a graded manner on properties such as its stability in time or its strength. Crucially, these properties are accrued as a result of learning, which is in turn viewed as a mandatory process that always accompanies information processing. From this perspective, consciousness is best characterized as involving (1) a graded continuum defined over "quality of representation", such that availability to consciousness and to cognitive control correlates with quality, and (2) the implication of systems of metarepresentations. A first implication of these ideas is that the main function of consciousness is to make flexible, adaptive control over behavior possible. A second, much more speculative implication, is that we learn to be conscious. This I call the "radical plasticity thesis"--the hypothesis that consciousness emerges in systems capable not only of learning about their environment, but also about their own internal representations of it.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/52925/1/Elsevier_28200.pdf

 

How do we know what we are doing

Sarrazin, J.-C., Cleeremans, A., & Haggard, P. (2008). How do we know what we are doing: Time, intention and awareness of action. Consciousness and Cognition, 17, 602-615. doi:10.1016/j.concog.2007.03.007  

Time is a fundamental dimension of consciousness. Many studies of the "sense of agency" have investigated whether we attribute actions to ourselves based on a conscious experience of intention occurring prior to action, or based on a reconstruction after the action itself has occurred. Here, we ask the same question about a lower level aspect of action experience, namely awareness of the detailed spatial form of a simple movement. Subjects reached for a target, which unpredictably jumped to the side on some trials. Participants (1) expressed their expectancy of a target shift during the upcoming movement, (2) pointed at the target as quickly and accurately as possible before returning to the start posiment to the target shift if required and (3) reproduced the spatial path of the movement they had just made, as accurately as possible, to give an indication of their awareness of the pointing movement. We analysed the spatial disparity between the initial and the reproduced movements on those with a target shift. A negative disparity value, or undershoot, suggests that motor awareness merely reflects a sluggish record of coordinated motor performance, while a positive value, or overshoot, suggests that participants' intention to point to the shifting target contributes more to their awareness of action than their actual pointing movement. Undershoot and overshoot thus measure the reconstructive (motoric) and the preconstuctive (intentional) aspects of action awareness, respectively. We found that trials on which subjects strongly expected a target shift showed greater overshoot and less undershoot than trials with lower expectancy. Conscious expectancy therefore strongly influences the experience of the detailed motor parameters of our actions. Further, a delay inserted either between the expectancy judgement and the pointing movement, or between the pointing movement and the reproduction of the movement, had no effect on visuomotor adjustment but strongly influenced action awareness. Delays during either interval boosted undershoots, suggesting increased reliance on a time-limited sensory memory for action. The experience of action is thus strongly influenced by prior thoughts and expectations, but only over a short time period. Thus, awareness of our actions is a dynamic and relatively flexible mixture of what we intend to do, and what our motor system actually does.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/30494/1/Elsevier_12046.pdf

 

La Conscience

Cleeremans, A. (2008). La Conscience. La Recherche. Hors-série, 30, 76-81.  

 

Naissance de la psychiatrie biologique

Missa, J.-N. (2008). Naissance de la psychiatrie biologique. Bulletin et mémoires de l'Académie royale de médecine de Belgique, 163, 255-261.  

 

Avortement médical, liberté de conscience et éthique utilitariste

Daled, P.-F. (2008). Avortement médical, liberté de conscience et éthique utilitariste. Le Figuier (Bruxelles), 97-110.  

 

Philosophie, sciences médicales et fondements laïques au XIXe siècle 

Daled, P.-F. (2008). Philosophie, sciences médicales et fondements laïques au XIXe siècle : le cas de l'Université libre de Bruxelles. Education comparée, 1, 129-143.  

 

2007

Consciousness and metarepresentation: a computational sketch.

Cleeremans, A., Timmermans, B., & Pasquali, A. (2007). Consciousness and metarepresentation: a computational sketch. Neural networks, 20(9), 1032-1039. doi:10.1016/j.neunet.2007.09.011  

When one is conscious of something, one is also conscious that one is conscious. Higher-Order Thought Theory [Rosenthal, D. (1997). A theory of consciousness. In N. Block, O. Flanagan, & G. Güzeldere (Eds.), The nature of consciousness: Philosophical debates. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press] takes it that it is in virtue of the fact that one is conscious of being conscious, that one is conscious. Here, we ask what the computational mechanisms may be that implement this intuition. Our starting point is Clark and Karmiloff-Smith's [Clark, A., & Karmiloff-Smith, A. (1993). The cognizer's innards: A psychological and philosophical perspective on the development of thought. Mind and Language, 8, 487-519] point that knowledge acquired by a connectionist network always remains "knowledge in the network rather than knowledge for the network". That is, while connectionist networks may become exquisitely sensitive to regularities contained in their input-output environment, they never exhibit the ability to access and manipulate this knowledge as knowledge: The knowledge can only be expressed through performing the task upon which the network was trained; it remains forever embedded in the causal pathways that developed as a result of training. To address this issue, we present simulations in which two networks interact. The states of a first-order network trained to perform a simple categorization task become input to a second-order network trained either as an encoder or on another categorization task. Thus, the second-order network "observes" the states of the first-order network and has, in the first case, to reproduce these states on its output units, and in the second case, to use the states as cues in order to solve the secondary task. This implements a limited form of metarepresentation, to the extent that the second-order network's internal representations become re-representations of the first-order network's internal states. We conclude that this mechanism provides the beginnings of a computational mechanism to account for mental attitudes, that is, an understanding by a cognitive system of the manner in which its first-order knowledge is held (belief, hope, fear, etc.). Consciousness, in this light, thus involves knowledge of the geography of one own's internal representations - a geography that is itself learned over time as a result of an agent's attributing value to the various experiences it enjoys through interaction with itself, the world, and others.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/52924/1/Elsevier_28201.pdf

 

Introduction to the special issue on 'Brain and Consciousness'.

Taylor, J. G., Freeman, W., & Cleeremans, A. (2007). Introduction to the special issue on 'Brain and Consciousness'. Neural networks, 20(9), 929-931. doi:10.1016/j.neunet.2007.09.010  
https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/52934/1/Elsevier_28206.pdf

 

Cognitive control of sequential knowledge in 2-year-olds: evidence from an incidental sequence-learning and -generation task.

Bremner, A., Mareschal, D., Destrebecqz, A., & Cleeremans, A. (2007). Cognitive control of sequential knowledge in 2-year-olds: evidence from an incidental sequence-learning and -generation task. Psychological science, 18(3), 261-266. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9280.2007.01886.x  

Under incidental instructions, thirty-eight 2-year-olds were trained on a six-element deterministic sequence of spatial locations. Following training, subjects were informed of the presence of a sequence and asked to either reproduce or suppress the learned material. Children's production of the trained sequence was modulated by these instructions. When asked to suppress the trained sequence, the children were able to increase generation of paths that were not from the training sequence. Their performance was thus dependent on active suppression of knowledge, rather than on a random generation strategy. This degree of control in 2-year-olds stands in stark contrast to 3-year-olds' failure to control explicitly instructed rule-based knowledge (as measured by the dimensional-change card-sort task). We suggest that the incidental nature of a learning episode enables the acquisition of a more procedural form of knowledge with which this age group has more experience prior to the onset of fluent language.

 

Dans le cerveau d'Homer Simpson

Cleeremans, A., & David, E. (2007). Dans le cerveau d'Homer Simpson: La psychologie économique à l'heure du neuromarketing. Psychologie du travail et des organisations, 13(4), 53-75.  
https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/55179/4/bd6188e4-fa43-47a8-a93a-bc61f50f1fef.txt

 

Time, Action, Consciousness

Cleeremans, A., & Sarrazin, J.-C. (2007). Time, Action, Consciousness. Human Movement Science. doi:10.1016/j.humov.2007.01.009  

Time plays a central role in consciousness, at different levels and in different aspects of information processing. Subliminal perception experiments demonstrate that stimuli presented too briefly to enter conscious awareness are nevertheless processed to some extent. Implicit learning, implicit memory, and conditioning studies suggest that the extent to which memory traces are available for verbal report and for cognitive control is likewise dependent on the time available for processing during acquisition. Differences in the time available for processing also determine not only the extent to which one becomes conscious of action, but also provides the basis for making attributions of authorship to experienced acts. In this paper, we offer a brief overview of these different findings and suggest that they can all be understood based on the fact that consciousness takes time. From this perspective, the availability of representations to conscious awareness depends on the quality of these representations - the extent to which they are strong, stable in time, and distinctive. High-quality representations occur when processes of global competition have had sufficient time to operate so as to make the system settle into the best possible interpretation of the input. Such processes implement global constraint satisfaction and critically depend on reentrant processing, through which representations can be further enriched by high-level constraints. We discuss these ideas in light of current theories of consciousness, emphasizing the fact that consciousness should be viewed as a process rather than as a static property associated with some states and not with others.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/30490/1/Elsevier_12044.pdf

 

2006

Implicit change identification: a replication of Fernandez-Duque and Thornton (2003).

Laloyaux, C., Destrebecqz, A., & Cleeremans, A. (2006). Implicit change identification: a replication of Fernandez-Duque and Thornton (2003). Journal of experimental psychology. Human perception and performance, 32(6), 1366-1379. doi:10.1037/0096-1523.32.6.1366  

Using a simple change detection task involving vertical and horizontal stimuli, I. M. Thornton and D. Fernandez-Duque (2000) showed that the implicit detection of a change in the orientation of an item influences performance in a subsequent orientation judgment task. However, S. R. Mitroff, D. J. Simons, and S. L. Franconeri (2002) were not able to replicate this finding after correcting for confounds and thus attributed Thornton and Fernandez-Duque's results to methodological artifacts. Because Mitroff et al.'s failure to replicate might in turn have stemmed from several methodological differences between their study and those of Thornton and Fernandez-Duque (2000) and Fernandez-Duque and Thornton, the current authors set out to conduct a further replication in which they corrected all known methodological biases identified so far. The results suggest that implicit change detection indeed occurs: People's conscious decisions about the orientation of an item appear to be influenced by previous undetected changes in the orientation of other items in the display. Implications of this finding in light of current theories of visual awareness are discussed.

 

Dissociating the effects of automatic activation and explicit expectancy on reaction times in a simple associative learning task

Perruchet, P., Cleeremans, A., & Destrebecqz, A. (2006). Dissociating the effects of automatic activation and explicit expectancy on reaction times in a simple associative learning task. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 32(5), 955-965. doi:10.1037/0278-7393.32.5.955  

After repeated associations between two events, E1 and E2, responses to E2 can be facilitated either because participants consciously expect E2 to occur after E1 or because E1 automatically activates the response to E2, or because of both. In this article, the authors report on 4 experiments designed to pit the influence of these 2 factors against each other. The authors found that the fastest responses to a target in a reaction time paradigm occurred when automatic activation was highest and conscious expectancy lowest. These results, when considered together with previous findings indicating that, under most conditions, the relation between expectancy and reaction times is in the opposite direction, are indicative of a reversed association-an interaction pattern that J. C. Dunn and K. Kirsner (1988) demonstrated to be the only one that unambiguously points to the involvement of independent processes.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/40989/4/c57de2a2-65ba-436c-b76e-c57d218aa670.txt

 

First- and third-person approaches in implicit learning research

Gaillard, V., Vandenberghe, M., Destrebecqz, A., & Cleeremans, A. (2006). First- and third-person approaches in implicit learning research. Consciousness and Cognition, 15(4), 709-722. doi:10.1016/j.concog.2006.08.001  

How do we find out whether someone is conscious of some information or not? A simple answer is "We just ask them"! However, things are not so simple. Here, we review recent developments in the use of subjective and objective methods in implicit learning research and discuss the highly complex methodological problems that their use raises in the domain.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/40861/1/2006-Gaillard et al.pdf

 

Can amnesic patients learn without awareness?

Vandenberghe, M., Schmidt, N., Fery, P., & Cleeremans, A. (2006). Can amnesic patients learn without awareness?: New evidence comparing deterministic and probabilistic sequence learning. Neuropsychologia, 44, 1629-1641. doi:10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2006.03.022  

Can associative learning take place without awareness? We explore this issue in a sequence learning paradigm with amnesic and control participants, who were simply asked to react to one of four possible stimuli on each trial. Unknown to them, successive stimuli occurred in a sequence. We manipulated the extent to which stimuli followed the sequence in a deterministic manner (noiseless condition) or only probabilistically so (noisy condition). Through this paradigm, we aimed at addressing two central issues: first, we asked whether sequence learning takes place in either condition with amnesic patients. Second, we asked whether this learning takes place without awareness. To answer this second question, participants were asked to perform a subsequent sequence generation task under inclusion and exclusion conditions, as well as a recognition task. Reaction times results show that amnesic patients learned the sequence only in the deterministic condition. However, they failed to be able to reproduce the sequence in the generation task. In contrast, we found learning for both sequence structures in control participants, but only control participants exposed to a deterministic sequence were successful in performing the generation task, thus suggesting that the acquired knowledge can be used consciously in this condition. Neither amnesic nor control participants showed correct old/new judgments in the recognition task. The results strengthen the claim that implicit learning is at least partly spared in amnesia, and the role of contextual information available for learning is discussed.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/40811/1/Elsevier_17276.pdf

 

Change blindness to gradual changes in facial expression

David, E., Laloyaux, C., Devue, C., & Cleeremans, A. (2006). Change blindness to gradual changes in facial expression. Psychologica belgica, 46(4), 253-268.  

Change blindness - our inability to detect changes in a stimulus - occurs even when the change takes place gradually, without disruption (Simons, Franconeri, & Reimer, 2000). Such gradual changes are more difficult to detect than changes that involve a disruption. In this experiment, we extend previous findings to the domain of facial expressions of emotions occurring in the context of a realistic scene. Even with changes occurring in central, highly relevant stimuli such as faces, gradual changes still produced high levels of change blindness: Detection rates were three times lower for gradual changes than for displays involving disruption, with only 15% of the observers perceiving the gradual change within a single trial. However, despite this high rate of change blindness, changes on faces were significantly better detected than colour changes occurring on non facial objects in the same scene.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/55180/4/ed85b5d9-c297-4e4f-a71b-70758cf25b2a.txt

 

2005

Implicit learning in a prediction task

Destrebecqz, A., & Cleeremans, A. (2005). Implicit learning in a prediction task: Neither abstract nor based on exemplars. Current Psychology Letters, 17(3).  
https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/40879/4/32622826-bfdb-40e5-9e29-31ead65f4b1f.txt

 

Consciousness: converging insights from connectionist modeling and neuroscience.

Maia, T. V., & Cleeremans, A. (2005). Consciousness: converging insights from connectionist modeling and neuroscience. Trends in cognitive sciences, 9(8), 397-404. doi:10.1016/j.tics.2005.06.016  

Over the past decade, many findings in cognitive neuroscience have resulted in the view that selective attention, working memory and cognitive control involve competition between widely distributed representations. This competition is biased by top-down projections (notably from prefrontal cortex), which can selectively enhance some representations over others. This view has now been implemented in several connectionist models. In this review, we emphasize the relevance of these models to understanding consciousness. Interestingly, the models we review have striking similarities to others directly aimed at implementing 'global workspace theory'. All of these models embody a fundamental principle that has been used in many connectionist models over the past twenty years: global constraint satisfaction.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/52921/1/Elsevier_28204.pdf

 

Processing abstract sequence structure

Boyer, M., Destrebecqz, A., & Cleeremans, A. (2005). Processing abstract sequence structure: learning without knowing, or knowing without learning? Psychological Research, 69(5-6), 383-398. doi:10.1007/s00426-004-0207-4  

Constant interaction with a dynamic environment-from riding a bicycle to segmenting speech-makes sensitivity to the sequential structure of the world a fundamental dimension of information processing. Accounts of sequence learning vary widely, with some authors arguing that parsing and segmentation processes are central, and others proposing that sequence learning involves mere memorization. In this paper, we argue that sequence knowledge is essentially statistical in nature, and that sequence learning involves simple associative prediction mechanisms. We focus on a choice reaction situation introduced by Lee (1997), in which participants were exposed to material that follows a single abstract rule, namely that stimuli are selected randomly, but never appear more than once in a legal sequence. Perhaps surprisingly, people can learn this rule very well. Or can they? We offer a conceptual replication of the original finding, but a very different interpretation of the results, as well as simulation work that makes it clear how highly abstract dimensions of the stimulus material can in fact be learned based on elementary associative mechanisms. We conclude that, when relevant, memory is optimized to facilitate responding to events that have not occurred recently, and that sequence learning in general always involves sensitivity to repetition distance.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/40925/4/0f993ae3-20a2-4413-b880-8c475888cead.txt

 

Real rules are conscious

Destrebecqz, A., & Cleeremans, A. (2005). Real rules are conscious. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 28(1), 19-20. doi:10.1017/S0140525X05280019  

In general, we agree with Pothos's claim that similarity and rule knowledge are best viewed as situated on the extreme points of a single representational continuum. However, we contend that a distinction can be made between "rule-like" and "rule-based" knowledge: Rule-based, symbolic knowledge is necessarily conscious when it is applied. Awareness thus provides a useful criterion for distinguishing between sensitivity to functional similarity and knowledge of symbolic rules.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/40933/4/42312c92-cb54-4a44-951c-9d1192a49a53.txt

 

Filling one gap by creating another one

Peigneux, P., Destrebecqz, A., Hotermans, C., & Cleeremans, A. (2005). Filling one gap by creating another one: Memory stabilization is not all-or-nothing either. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 28(1), 78.  
https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/40859/4/0a9073c5-07b2-4d67-8359-74b2fae36fcd.txt

 

The neural correlates of implicit and explicit sequence learning

Destrebecqz, A., Peigneux, P., Laureys, S., Degueldre, C., Del Fiore, G., Aerts, J., Luxen, A., Van der Linden, M., Cleeremans, A., & Maquet, P. (2005). The neural correlates of implicit and explicit sequence learning: interacting networks revealed by the process dissociation procedure. Learning and Memory, 12(5), 480-490. doi:10.1101/lm.95605  

In two H2(15)O PET scan experiments, we investigated the cerebral correlates of explicit and implicit knowledge in a serial reaction time (SRT) task. To do so, we used a novel application of the Process Dissociation Procedure, a behavioral paradigm that makes it possible to separately assess conscious and unconscious contributions to performance during a subsequent sequence generation task. To manipulate the extent to which the repeating sequential pattern was learned explicitly, we varied the pace of the choice reaction time task-a variable that is known to have differential effects on the extent to which sensitivity to sequence structure involves implicit or explicit knowledge. Results showed that activity in the striatum subtends the implicit component of performance during recollection of a learned sequence, whereas the anterior cingulate/mesial prefrontal cortex (ACC/MPFC) supports the explicit component. Most importantly, we found that the ACC/MPFC exerts control on the activity of the striatum during retrieval of the sequence after explicit learning, whereas the activity of these regions is uncoupled when learning had been essentially implicit. These data suggest that implicit learning processes can be successfully controlled by conscious knowledge when learning is essentially explicit. They also supply further evidence for a partial dissociation between the neural substrates supporting conscious and nonconscious components of performance during recollection of a learned sequence.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/40955/4/PMC1240060.pdf

 

Intuitive decision making in complex situations

Bierman, D. J., Destrebecqz, A., & Cleeremans, A. (2005). Intuitive decision making in complex situations: Somatic markers in an artificial grammar learning task. Cognitive, affective & behavioral neuroscience, 5(3), 297-305. doi:10.3758/CABN.5.3.297  

In this article, we explore the extent to which implicit learning is subtended by somatic markers, as evidenced by skin conductance measures. On each trial, subjects were asked to decide which "word" from a pair of "words" was the "correct" one. Unknown to the subjects, each "word" of a pair was constructed using a different set of rules (Grammar A and Grammar B). A (monetary) reward was given if the subject chose the "word" from Grammar A. Choosing the Grammar B word resulted in (monetary) punishment. Skin conductance was measured during each of 100 trials. After each set of 10 trials, the subjects were asked how they selected the "correct word." Task performance increased long before the subjects could even formulate a single relevant rule. In this preconceptual phase of the experiment, skin conductance was larger before incorrect than before correct choices. Thus, it was shown that artificial grammar learning is accompanied by a somatic marker, possibly "warning" the subject of the incorrect decision.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/40891/3/doi_17316.pdf

 

Computational correlates of consciousness.

Cleeremans, A. (2005). Computational correlates of consciousness. Progress in brain research, 150, 81-98. doi:10.1016/S0079-6123(05)50007-4  

Over the past few years numerous proposals have appeared that attempt to characterize consciousness in terms of what could be called its computational correlates: Principles of information processing with which to characterize the differences between conscious and unconscious processing. Proposed computational correlates include architectural specialization (such as the involvement of specific regions of the brain in conscious processing), properties of representations (such as their stability in time or their strength), and properties of specific processes (such as resonance, synchrony, interactivity, or information integration). In exactly the same way as one can engage in a search for the neural correlates of consciousness, one can thus search for the computational correlates of consciousness. The most direct way of doing is to contrast models of conscious versus unconscious information processing. In this paper, I review these developments and illustrate how computational modeling of specific cognitive processes can be useful in exploring and in formulating putative computational principles through which to capture the differences between conscious and unconscious cognition. What can be gained from such approaches to the problem of consciousness is an understanding of the function it plays in information processing and of the mechanisms that subtend it. Here, I suggest that the central function of consciousness is to make it possible for cognitive agents to exert flexible, adaptive control over behavior. From this perspective, consciousness is best characterized as involving (1) a graded continuum defined over quality of representation, such that availability to consciousness and to cognitive control correlates with properties of representation, and (2) the implication of systems of meta-representations.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/52922/1/Elsevier_28203.pdf

 

2004

Le soi ou l'illusion d'une conscience unifiée

Missa, J.-N. (2004). Le soi ou l'illusion d'une conscience unifiée. Théologiques, 12, 165-180.  

 

2003

Memory processing during human sleep as assessed by functional neuroimaging

Maquet, P., Peigneux, P., Laureys, S., Boly, M., Dang-Vu, T. T., Desseilles, M., & Cleeremans, A. (2003). Memory processing during human sleep as assessed by functional neuroimaging. Revue neurologique, 159(11 SUPPL.), 6S27-6S29.  

Sleep is believed to participate in memory consolidation, possibly through off-line processing of recent memory traces. In this paper, we summarize functional neuroimaging data testing this hypothesis. First, sleep deprivation disrupts the processing of recent memory traces and hampers the changes in functional segregation and connectivity which underpin the gain in performance usually observed in subjects allowed to sleep on the first post-training night. Second, experience-dependent changes in regional brain activity occur during post-training sleep. These changes are shown to be related to the processing of high-level material and to be modulated by the amount of learning achieved during the training session. These changes do not involve isolated brain areas but entire macroscopic cerebral networks. These data suggest a role for sleep in the processing of recent memory traces.

 

Cerebral correlates of explicit sequence learning

Destrebecqz, A., Peigneux, P., Laureys, S., Degueldre, C., Del Fiore, G., Aerts, J., Luxen, A., Van der Linden, M., Cleeremans, A., & Maquet, P. (2003). Cerebral correlates of explicit sequence learning. Cognitive Brain Research, 16(3), 391-398. doi:10.1016/S0926-6410(03)00053-3  

Using positron emission tomography (PET) and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) measurements, we investigated the cerebral correlates of consciousness in a sequence learning task through a novel application of the Process Dissociation Procedure, a behavioral paradigm that makes it possible to separately assess conscious and unconscious contributions to performance. Results show that the metabolic response in the anterior cingulate/mesial prefrontal cortex (ACC/MPFC) is exclusively and specifically correlated with the explicit component of performance during recollection of a learned sequence. This suggests a significant role for the ACC/MPFC in the explicit processing of sequential material. © 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/40815/1/Elsevier_17278.pdf

 

Harder, better, stronger, faster

Cleeremans, A., & Destrebecqz, A. (2003). Harder, better, stronger, faster: A review of Computational Explorations in Cognitive Neuroscience. European Journal of cognitive psychology, 15(3), 474-477.  
https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/55866/4/5f4878d8-3e65-44e8-bf9e-35f259ce423f.txt

 

Learned material content and acquisition level modulate cerebral reactivation during posttraining rapid-eye-movements sleep

Peigneux, P., Laureys, S., Fuchs, S., Destrebecqz, A., Collette, F., Delbeuck, X., Phillips, C., Aerts, J., Del Fiore, G., Degueldre, C., Luxen, A., Cleeremans, A., & Maquet, P. (2003). Learned material content and acquisition level modulate cerebral reactivation during posttraining rapid-eye-movements sleep. NeuroImage, 20(1), 125-134. doi:10.1016/S1053-8119(03)00278-7  

We have previously shown that several brain areas are activated both during sequence learning at wake and during subsequent rapid-eye-movements (REM) sleep (Nat. Neurosci. 3 (2000) 831-836), suggesting that REM sleep participates in the reprocessing of recent memory traces in humans. However, the nature of the reprocessed information remains open. Here, we show that regional cerebral reactivation during posttraining REM sleep is not merely related to the acquisition of basic visuomotor skills during prior practice of the serial reaction time task, but rather to the implicit acquisition of the probabilistic rules that defined stimulus sequences. Moreover, functional connections between the reactivated cuneus and the striatum - the latter being critical for implicit sequence learning - are reinforced during REM sleep after practice on a probabilistic rather than on a random sequence of stimuli. Our results therefore support the hypothesis that REM sleep is deeply involved in the reprocessing and optimization of the high-order information contained in the material to be learned. In addition, we show that the level of acquisition of probabilistic rules attained prior to sleep is correlated to the increase in regional cerebral blood flow during subsequent REM sleep. This suggests that posttraining cerebral reactivation is modulated by the strength of the memory traces developed during the learning episode. Our data provide the first experimental evidence for a link between behavioral performance and cerebral reactivation during REM sleep. © 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/116706/4/a32b1754-b6ec-45fb-b8b3-5dc6b9603855.txt

 

Ces zombies qui nous gouvernent

Cleeremans, A. (2003). Ces zombies qui nous gouvernent. La Recherche. Hors-série, 366, 36-40.  
https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/116872/4/04916de7-d0ce-4977-9906-70a1766cad80.txt

 

2002

The self-organized conundrum

Destrebecqz, A., & Cleeremans, A. (2002). The self-organized conundrum. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 25(3), 334-335. doi:10.1017/s0140525x02270065  

Perruchet and Vinter stop short of fully embracing the implications of their own SOC framework, and hence end up defending an implausible perspective on consciousness. We suggest instead that consciousness should be viewed as a graded dimension defined over quality of representation. This graded perspective eliminates the most problematic aspects of the cognitive unconscious without denying its existence altogether.

 

Handlung und Bewusstsein

Cleeremans, A. (2002). Handlung und Bewusstsein: Ein Rahmenkonzept für den Fertigkeitserwerb. Psychologie und Sport, 9, 2-19.  

 

2001

Implicit learning out of the lab: the case of orthographic regularities.

Pacton, S., Perruchet, P., Fayol, M., & Cleeremans, A. (2001). Implicit learning out of the lab: the case of orthographic regularities. Journal of experimental psychology. General, 130(3), 401-426. doi:10.1037//0096-3445.130.3.401  

Children's (Grades 1 to 5) implicit learning of French orthographic regularities was investigated through nonword judgment (Experiments 1 and 2) and completion (Experiments 3a and 3b) tasks. Children were increasingly sensitive to (a) the frequency of double consonants (Experiments 1, 2, and 3a), (b) the fact that vowels can never be doubled (Experiment 2), and (c) the legal position of double consonants (Experiments 2 and 3b). The latter effect transferred to never doubled consonants but with a decrement in performance. Moreover, this decrement persisted without any trend toward fading, even after the massive amounts of experience provided by years of practice. This result runs against the idea that transfer to novel material is indicative of abstract rule-based knowledge and suggests instead the action of mechanisms sensitive to the statistical properties of the material. A connectionist model is proposed as an instantiation of such mechanisms.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/52920/4/f9ff7645-3a67-477d-9913-be9bf4ba2576.txt

 

Experience-dependent changes in cerebral functional connectivity during human rapid-eye-movement sleep

Laureys, S., Peigneux, P., Phillips, C., Fuchs, S., Degueldre, C., Aerts, J., Del Fiore, G., Petiau, C., Luxen, A., Van der Linden, M., Cleeremans, A., & Maquet, P. (2001). Experience-dependent changes in cerebral functional connectivity during human rapid-eye-movement sleep. Neuroscience, 105(3), 521-525. doi:10.1016/S0306-4522(01)00269-X  

One function of sleep is hypothesized to be the reprocessing and consolidation of memory traces (Smith, 1995; Gais et al., 2000; McGaugh, 2000; Stickgold et al., 2000). At the cellular level, neuronal reactivations during post-training sleep in animals have been observed in hippocampal (Wilson and McNaughton, 1994) and cortical (Amzica et al., 1997) neuronal populations. At the systems level, using positron emission tomography, we have recently shown that some brain areas reactivated during rapid-eye-movement sleep in human subjects previously trained on an implicit learning task (a serial reaction time task) (Maquet et al., 2000). These cortical reactivations, located in the left premotor area and bilateral cuneus, were thought to reflect the reprocessing--possibly the consolidation--of memory traces during post-training rapid-eye-movement sleep. Here, the experience-dependent functional connectivity of these brain regions is examined. It is shown that the left premotor cortex is functionally more correlated with the left posterior parietal cortex and bilateral pre-supplementary motor area during rapid-eye-movement sleep of subjects previously trained to the reaction time task compared to rapid-eye-movement sleep of untrained subjects. The increase in functional connectivity during post-training rapid-eye-movement sleep suggests that the brain areas reactivated during post-training rapid-eye-movement sleep participate in the optimization of the network that subtends subject's visuo-motor response. The optimization of this visuo-motor network during sleep could explain the gain in performance observed during the following day.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/26181/1/Elsevier_9843.pdf

 

Can sequence learning be implicit?

Destrebecqz, A., & Cleeremans, A. (2001). Can sequence learning be implicit?: New evidence with the process dissociation procedure. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 8(2), 343-350. doi:10.3758/BF03196171  

Can we learn without awareness? Although this issue has been extensively explored through studies of implicit learning, there is currently no agreement about the extent to which knowledge can be acquired and projected onto performance in an unconscious way. The controversy, like that surrounding implicit memory, seems to be at least in part attributable to unquestioned acceptance of the unrealistic assumption that tasks are process-pure--that is, that a given task exclusively involves either implicit or explicit knowledge. Methods such as the process dissociation procedure (PDP, Jacoby, 1991) have been developed to overcome the conceptual limitations of the process purity assumption but have seldom been used in the context of implicit learning research. In this paper, we show how the PDP can be applied to a free generation task so as to disentangle explicit and implicit sequence learning. Our results indicate that subjects who are denied preparation to the next stimulus nevertheless exhibit knowledge of the sequence through their reaction time performance despite remaining unable (1) to project this knowledge in a recognition task and (2) to refrain from expressing their knowledge when specifically instructed to do so. These findings provide strong evidence that sequence learning can be unconscious.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/40813/4/40813.pdfhttps://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/40813/1/Destrebecqz-in-press.pdf

 

L'orchestre neuronal et la musique de la conscience

Missa, J.-N. (2001). L'orchestre neuronal et la musique de la conscience. Cahiers philosophiques, 85.  

 

Un heureux événement

Missa, J.-N. (2001). Un heureux événement: la naissance du premier clone humain. Cités, 8, 144-149.  

 

2000

Experience-dependent changes in cerebral activation during human REM sleep

Maquet, P., Laureys, S., Peigneux, P., Fuchs, S., Petiau, C., Phillips, C., Aerts, J., Del Fiore, G., Degueldre, C., Meulemans, T., Luxen, A., Franck, G., Van der Linden, M., Smith, C., & Cleeremans, A. (2000). Experience-dependent changes in cerebral activation during human REM sleep. Nature Neuroscience, 3(8), 831-836. doi:10.1038/77744  

The function of rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep is still unknown. One prevailing hypothesis suggests that REM sleep is important in processing memory traces. Here, using positron emission tomography (PET) and regional cerebral blood flow measurements, we show that waking experience influences regional brain activity during subsequent sleep. Several brain areas activated during the execution of a serial reaction time task during wakefulness were significantly more active during REM sleep in subjects previously trained on the task than in non-trained subjects. These results support the hypothesis that memory traces are processed during REM sleep in humans.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/26185/4/961c2795-f02a-46be-a3e2-03e9eeac8330.txt

 

Striatum forever, despite sequence learning variability: A random effect analysis of PET data

Peigneux, P., Maquet, P., Meulemans, T., Destrebecqz, A., Degueldre, C., Del Fiore, G., Luxen, A., Franck, G., Cleeremans, A., & Van der Linden, M. (2000). Striatum forever, despite sequence learning variability: A random effect analysis of PET data. Human brain mapping, 10(4), 179-194. doi:10.1002/1097-0193(200008)10:4<179::AID-HBM30>3.0.CO;2-H  

This PET study is concerned with the what, where, and how of implicit sequence learning. In contrast with previous studies imaging the serial reaction time (SRT) task, the sequence of successive locations was determined by a probabilistic finite-state grammar. The implicit acquisition of statistical relationships between serially ordered elements (i.e., what) was studied scan by scan, aiming to evidence the brain areas (i.e., where) specifically involved in the implicit processing of this core component of sequential higher-order knowledge. As behavioural results demonstrate between- and within-subjects variability in the implicit acquisition of sequential knowledge through practice, functional PET data were modelled using a random-effect model analysis (i.e., how) to account for both sources of behavioural variability. First, two mean condition images were created per subject depending on the presence or not of implicit sequential knowledge at the time of each of the 12 scans. Next, direct comparison of these mean condition images provided the brain areas involved in sequential knowledge processing. Using this approach, we have shown that the striatum is involved in more than simple pairwise associations and that it has the capacity to process higher-order knowledge. We suggest that the striatum is not only involved in the implicit automatization of serial information through prefrontal cortex-caudate nucleus networks, but also that it plays a significant role for the selection of the most appropriate responses in the context created by both the current and previous stimuli, thus contributing to better efficiency and faster response preparation in the SRT task. Hum. Brain Mapping 10:179-194, 2000. © 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/71533/3/71533.pdf

 

Université libre de Bruxelles

Daled, P.-F. (2000). Université libre de Bruxelles: Quelques courants de pensée au XIXe siècle. Espace de libertés, 4, 6-8.  

 

Devoir expérimenter, devoir contrôler?

Missa, J.-N. (2000). Devoir expérimenter, devoir contrôler? Ethica Clinica, 17, 14-16.  

 

Consciousness

Atkinson, A. B., Thomas, M. S., & Cleeremans, A. (2000). Consciousness: Mapping the theoretical landscape. Trends in cognitive sciences, 4(10), 372-382.  

 

Editorial Statement

Cleeremans, A. (2000). Editorial Statement. Psychologica belgica, 40, 1-2.  

 

Neural correlates of consciousness of sequence knowledge: A novel application of the process dissociation procedure

Destrebecqz, A., Peigneux, P., Maquet, P., Degueldre, C., Delfiore, G., Luxen, A., Van der Linden, M., & Cleeremans, A. (2000). Neural correlates of consciousness of sequence knowledge: A novel application of the process dissociation procedure. NeuroImage, 11(5 PART II), S405.  

 

Consciousness: mapping the theoretical landscape.

Atkinson, A., Thomas, M. S., & Cleeremans, A. (2000). Consciousness: mapping the theoretical landscape. Trends in cognitive sciences, 4(10), 372-382.  

What makes us conscious? Many theories that attempt to answer this question have appeared recently in the context of widespread interest about consciousness in the cognitive neurosciences. Most of these proposals are formulated in terms of the information processing conducted by the brain. In this overview, we survey and contrast these models. We first delineate several notions of consciousness, addressing what it is that the various models are attempting to explain. Next, we describe a conceptual landscape that addresses how the theories attempt to explain consciousness. We then situate each of several representative models in this landscape and indicate which aspect of consciousness they try to explain. We conclude that the search for the neural correlates of consciousness should be usefully complemented by a search for the computational correlates of consciousness.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/221975/4/b2447b0e-91a7-429c-952c-cbc4798b4989.txt

 

Striatum forever, despite sequence learning variability: A random effect analysis of PET data

Peigneux, P., Franck, G., Van der Linden, M., Cleeremans, A., Maquet, P., Meulemans, T., Destrebecqz, A., Laureys, S., Degueldre, C., Delfiore, G., Aerts, J., & Luxen, A. (2000). Striatum forever, despite sequence learning variability: A random effect analysis of PET data. Human brain mapping, 10(4), 179-194. doi:10.1002/1097-0193(200008)10:4<179::AID-HBM30>3.0.CO;2-H  

This PET study is concerned with the what, where, and how of implicit sequence learning. In contrast with previous studies imaging the serial reaction time (SRT) task, the sequence of successive locations was determined by a probabilistic finite-state grammar. The implicit acquisition of statistical relationships between serially ordered elements (i.e., what) was studied scan by scan, aiming to evidence the brain areas (i.e., where) specifically involved in the implicit processing of this core component of sequential higher-order knowledge. As behavioural results demonstrate between- and within-subjects variability in the implicit acquisition of sequential knowledge through practice, functional PET data were modelled using a random-effect model analysis (i.e., how) to account for both sources of behavioural variability. First, two mean condition images were created per subject depending on the presence or not of implicit sequential knowledge at the time of each of the 12 scans. Next, direct comparison of these mean condition images provided the brain areas involved in sequential knowledge processing. Using this approach, we have shown that the striatum is involved in more than simple pairwise associations and that it has the capacity to process higher-order knowledge. We suggest that the striatum is not only involved in the implicit automatization of serial information through prefrontal cortex-caudate nucleus networks, but also that it plays a significant role for the selection of the most appropriate responses in the context created by both the current and previous stimuli, thus contributing to better efficiency and faster response preparation in the SRT task. (C) 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

 

Le concept d'image dans les sciences neurologiques du XIXe siècle et son évolution dans les neurosciences contemporaines

Missa, J.-N. (2000). Le concept d'image dans les sciences neurologiques du XIXe siècle et son évolution dans les neurosciences contemporaines. Annales d'histoire et de philosophie du vivant, 3, 115-124.  

 

1999

From state eugenics to private eugenics

Missa, J.-N. (1999). From state eugenics to private eugenics. Baillière's best practice & research. Clinical obstetrics & gynaecology, 13(4), 533-541. doi:10.1053/beog.1999.0047  

Eugenics - or 'the cultivation of a race' - is a concept dating from the latter part of the 19th century. It preceded the new science of genetics by merely 25 years. Negative eugenics stressed especially the exclusion of negative characteristics and was associated with the practice and theory of radical eugenics between the two World Wars. In order to redress 'the decline of the race', reinforcement by positive eugenics was also advocated. After the atrocities committed by the Nazis there was a lull in the practice and discourse of eugenics. More recent technical advances in assisted reproduction techniques and the genome project, however, have revived the eugenics debate. State eugenics and eugenics as an individual choice ought to be distinguished.

 

Fishing with the wrong nets: How the implicit slips through the representational theory of mind

Jiménez, L., & Cleeremans, A. (1999). Fishing with the wrong nets: How the implicit slips through the representational theory of mind: Open peer commentary to Dienes & Perner. Behavioral and brain sciences, 22, 771. doi:10.1017/S0140525X99402183  

Dienes and Perner's target article is not a satisfactory theory of implicit knowledge because in endorsing the representational theory of knowledge, the authors also inadvertently accept that only explicit knowledge can be causally efficacious, and hence that implicit knowledge is an inert category. This conflation between causal efficacy, knowledge, and explicitness is made clear through the authors' strategy, which consists of attributing any observable effect to the existenee of representations that are as minimally explicit as needed to account for behavior. In contrast, we believe that causally efficacious and fully implicit knowledge exists, and is best embodied in frameworks that depart radically from classical assumptions.

 

Function, sufficiently constrained, implies form

French, R. M., & Cleeremans, A. (1999). Function, sufficiently constrained, implies form: Commentary on Green on Connectionist explanation. Psycholoquy, 9(4).  

Green's (1998) target article is an attack on most current connectionist models of cognition. Our commentary will suggest that there is an essential component missing in his discussion of modeling, namely, the idea that the appropriate level of the model needs to be specified. We will further suggest that the precise form (size, topology, learning rules, etc.) of connectionist networks will fall out as ever more detailed constraints are placed on their function.

 

Stability and explicitness: In defense of implicit representation

Jiménez, L., & Cleeremans, A. (1999). Stability and explicitness: In defense of implicit representation: Open peer commentary to O'Brien & Opie. Behavioral and brain sciences, 22, 151-152.  

 

Correlating Consciousness

Cleeremans, A., & Haynes, J.-D. (1999). Correlating Consciousness: A view from empirical science. Revue internationale de philosophie, 3(209), 387-420.  
https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/55815/4/750a6b46-2b61-4b24-ba32-bdb152895f7c.txt

 

Formation et jeux de simulation

Cleeremans, A., & Dufranne, M. (1999). Formation et jeux de simulation. Travail humain, 62, 1-24.  

 

Reactivation during REM sleep of cerebral areas involved in an serial reaction time task

Maquet, P., Petiau, C., Phillips, C., Laureys, S., Smith, C., Cleeremans, A., Luxen, A., Franck, G., & Van Der Linden, M. (1999). Reactivation during REM sleep of cerebral areas involved in an serial reaction time task. NeuroImage, 9(6 PART II), S981.  

 

Left inferior frontal cortex is involved in probabilistic serial reaction time learning

Peigneux, P., Maquet, P., Van der Linden, M., Meulemans, T., Degueldre, C., Delfiore, G., Luxen, A., Cleeremans, A., & Franck, G. (1999). Left inferior frontal cortex is involved in probabilistic serial reaction time learning. Brain and cognition, 40(1), 215-219.  

Cerebral blood flow was estimated using positron emission tomography and H2015 infusions in 12 volunteers while they were trained on the probabilistic serial reaction time task developed by Jimenez, Mendez, and Cleeremans (1996). Participants' reaction times to predictable and nonpredictable stimuli showed increasing sensitivity to the probabilistic constraints set by previous elements of the sequence. Analysis by statistical parametric mapping showed a significant interaction between participants' performance and time effect in the left inferior frontal cortex. Our results provide the first evidence of this cerebral area being involved in the processing of contextual information in a probabilistic sequence learning task.

 

1998

The other hard problem: How to bridge the gap between symbolic and subsymbolic cognition

Cleeremans, A. (1998). The other hard problem: How to bridge the gap between symbolic and subsymbolic cognition: Open peer commentary to Schyns, Goldstone & Thibaut. Behavioral and brain sciences, 21, 22-23.  

 

Implicit learning

Cleeremans, A., Destrebecqz, A., & Boyer, M. (1998). Implicit learning: news from the front. Trends in cognitive sciences, 2(10), 406-416. doi:10.1016/S1364-6613(98)01232-7  

Can we learn without awareness? While the current consensus is most likely to be `no', there is, however, considerable ongoing debate about the role that consciousness plays in cognition and about the nature of consciousness itself. In this article, we review recent advances in the field of implicit learning, based on three perspectives: empirical findings (including neuropsychological evidence), methodological issues, and theoretical positions (including computational models). The overall picture that emerges is complex and reflects a field that is very much in flux: while it seems undeniable that cognition involves some form of unconscious processing, it is as yet unclear how to best separate conscious and unconscious influences on learning, and how to best think about the status of the `cognitive unconscious'. We suggest that implicit learning is best construed as a complex form of priming taking place in continuously learning neural systems, and that the distributional knowledge so acquired can be causally efficacious in the absence of awareness that this knowledge was acquired or that it is currently influencing processing, that is, in the absence of metaknowledge.

 

Processing of contextual information during an implicit probabilistic sequence learning task: Left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex involvement

Peigneux, P., Maquet, P., Van Der Linden, M., Meulemans, T., Degueldre, C., Delfiore, G., Luxen, A., Cleeremans, A., & Franck, G. (1998). Processing of contextual information during an implicit probabilistic sequence learning task: Left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex involvement. NeuroImage, 7(4 PART II), S883.  

 

The other hard problem

Cleeremans, A. (1998). The other hard problem: how to bridge the gap between symbolic qnd subsymbolic cognition. Behavioral and brain sciences, 21(1), 22-23.  
https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/221976/4/c73c4631-103f-4eed-9175-8a54c2eec712.txt

 

De l'eugénisme d'Etat à l'eugénisme privé

Missa, J.-N. (1998). De l'eugénisme d'Etat à l'eugénisme privé: La nouvelle génétique médicale. Laus Medicinae, 39-66.  

 

De l'éthique individuelle à l'éthique collective

Missa, J.-N. (1998). De l'éthique individuelle à l'éthique collective: entre liberté et solidarité. Réseaux, 82-83-84, 85-99.  

 

1997

Current directions in implicit learning

Cleeremans, A., & Content, A. (1997). Current directions in implicit learning: Where is it that we were supposed to go again? Psychologica belgica, 37, 1-7.  

 

Sequence learning in a dual-stimulus setting

Cleeremans, A. (1997). Sequence learning in a dual-stimulus setting. Psychological research, 60, 72-86.  
https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/55819/4/02918208-edab-4080-a095-b21ec507cbad.txt

 

La psychochirurgie

Missa, J.-N. (1997). La psychochirurgie: histoire d'une pratique expérimentale I, L'époque des pionniers (1935-1954). MS. Médecine sciences, 13(11).  

 

La psychochirurgie

Missa, J.-N. (1997). La psychochirurgie: histoire d'une pratique expérimentale II, Les nouvelles techniques de chirurgie stéréotaxique (1955-1997). MS. Médecine sciences, 13(11).  

 

Le statut de l'embryon humain in vitro

Missa, J.-N. (1997). Le statut de l'embryon humain in vitro: terminologie et approche philosophique. Syllabus - University of Healing, 7-16.  

 

La psychochîrurgie : Histoire d'une pratique expérimentale. Partie I : l'époque des pionniers (1935-1954)

Missa, J.-N. (1997). La psychochîrurgie : Histoire d'une pratique expérimentale. Partie I : l'époque des pionniers (1935-1954). MS. Médecine sciences, 13(11), 1370-1374.  

 

La psychochirurgie : Histoire d'une pratique expérimentale Partie II : les nouvelles techniques de chirurgie stéréotaxique (1955-1997)

Missa, J.-N. (1997). La psychochirurgie : Histoire d'une pratique expérimentale Partie II : les nouvelles techniques de chirurgie stéréotaxique (1955-1997). MS. Médecine sciences, 13(12), 1521-1524.  

 

1996

Abstraction and implicit learning

Cleeremans, A. (1996). Abstraction and implicit learning. International journal of psychology, 31(3-4), 480. doi:10.1080/00207594.1996.19960821  

 

From chicken squawking to cognition

Cleeremans, A., & French, R. M. (1996). From chicken squawking to cognition: Levels of description and the computational approach in psychology. Psychologica belgica, 36, 5-29.  

 

Measures of awareness and of sequence knowledge

Cleeremans, A., Méndez, C., & Jiménez, L. (1996). Measures of awareness and of sequence knowledge. Psyche, 2, 20.  

 

Comparing direct and indirect measures of sequence learning

Jiménez, L., Méndez, C., & Cleeremans, A. (1996). Comparing direct and indirect measures of sequence learning. Journal of experimental psychology. Learning, memory, and cognition, 22(4), 1-22.  

Comparing the sensitivity of similar direct and indirect measures is proposed as the best way to provide evidence for unconscious learning. The authors apply this approach, first proposed by E. M. Reingold and P. M. Merikle (1988), to a choice reaction-time task in which the material is generated probabilistically on the basis of a finite-state grammar (A. Cleeremans, 1993). The data show that participants can learn about the structure of the stimulus material over training with the choice reaction-time task, but only to a limited extent - a result that is well predicted by the simple recurrent network model of A. Cleeremans and J. L. McClelland (1991). Participants can also use some of this knowledge to perform a subsequent generation task. However, detailed partial correlational analyses that control for knowledge as assessed by the generation task show that large effects of sequence learning are exclusively expressed through reaction time. This result suggests that at least some of this learning cannot be characterized as conscious.

 

1995

The beginning and the end of human life

Missa, J.-N. (1995). The beginning and the end of human life: Historical and epistemological study of the concepts of life and death (in the 19th and 20th centuries). KOS, 21-23.  

 

No matter where you go, there you are

Cleeremans, A. (1995). No matter where you go, there you are. The American journal of psychology, 108, 589-598.  

 

Matérialisme et neurosciences

Missa, J.-N. (1995). Matérialisme et neurosciences: la question des localisations cérébrales. Revue philosophique de Louvain, 43-53.  

 

Philosophie et sciences cognitives

Missa, J.-N. (1995). Philosophie et sciences cognitives. Philosophica Malacitana. Suplemento, 3, 67-76.  

 

Ethique de la Neurotransplantation

Missa, J.-N. (1995). Ethique de la Neurotransplantation. Journal international de bioéthique, 6, 33-38.  

 

Informed consent in the field of brain surgery

Missa, J.-N. (1995). Informed consent in the field of brain surgery. European philosophy of medicine and health care, 3(3).  

 

L'éthique formelle de H.T. Engelhardt Jr

Missa, J.-N. (1995). L'éthique formelle de H.T. Engelhardt Jr. ABN AMRO economic review, 3(3).  

 

The beginning and the end of human life

Missa, J.-N. (1995). The beginning and the end of human life: Historical and epistemological study of the concepts of life and death (in the 19th and 20th centuries). European philosophy of medicine and health care, 3(2), 82.  

 

1994

Awareness and abstraction are graded dimensions

Cleeremans, A. (1994). Awareness and abstraction are graded dimensions: Open peer commentary to Shanks & StJohn. Behavioral and brain sciences, 17, 402-403. doi:10.1017/S0140525X00035111  

 

1992

Sequence learning

Cleeremans, A. (1992). Sequence learning: An empirical comparison of three simulation models. International journal of psychology, 27(3-4), 123. doi:10.1080/00207599208246885  
https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/117904/3/117904.pdf

 

Implicit learning of feature conjuctions: Representation and limits on learning

Cleeremans, A., & Ward, R. (1992). Implicit learning of feature conjuctions: Representation and limits on learning. International journal of psychology, 27(3-4), 115. doi:10.1080/00207599208246885  
https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/117916/3/117916.pdf

 

1991

Learning the structure of event sequences

Cleeremans, A., & McClelland, J. L. (1991). Learning the structure of event sequences. Journal of experimental psychology. General, 120, 235-253.  

 

Graded State Machines

Cleeremans, A., Servan-Schreiber, D., & McClelland, J. L. (1991). Graded State Machines: The representation of temporal contingencies in simple recurrent networks. Machine learning, 7, 161-193.  

 

1990

Parallel Distributed Processing

McClelland, J. L., Cleeremans, A., & Servan-Schreiber, D. (1990). Parallel Distributed Processing: Bridging the gap between human and machine intelligence. Jinkō Chinō Gakkaishi, 5, 2-14.  

 

1989

Finite State Automata and Simple Recurrent Networks

Cleeremans, A., Servan-Schreiber, D., & McClelland, J. L. (1989). Finite State Automata and Simple Recurrent Networks. Neural computation, 1, 372-381.  
https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/55826/4/0ec7881c-1a94-4d69-9aa2-fa965082619c.txt

 

1988

Relations entre performance et connaissances verbalisables dans le contrôle de processus

Cleeremans, A. (1988). Relations entre performance et connaissances verbalisables dans le contrôle de processus. Travail humain, 51, 97-111.  

Several authors, using various situations pertaining as well to work as to the laboratory, have pointed out the existence of double dissociations between capacity to perform a given cognitive task and capacity to verbalize knowledge supposed to be necessary for the realization of this task. These results suggest that performance and verbalizations depend on specific cognitive processes, and lead to consider that two modes of treatment are available for the realization and learning of a task. The nature of the task would determine which mode of treatment is most efficient. In certain situations at least, process control would be better carried out implicitly. Various models proposed to account for these data are discussed, as well as their implications for work psychology.

 

Application de l'analyse typologique à l'étude de la performance lors d'un apprentissage

Cleeremans, A., & Karnas, G. (1988). Application de l'analyse typologique à l'étude de la performance lors d'un apprentissage. Cahiers de psychologie cognitive, 8(1), 95-103.  

 

1986

Sleep electroencephalographic measures in primary major depressive disorder

Kerkhofs, M., Missa, J.-N., & Mendlewicz, J. (1986). Sleep electroencephalographic measures in primary major depressive disorder: Distinction between DST suppressor and nonsuppressor patients. Biological psychiatry, 21, 228-232. doi:10.1016/0006-3223(86)90153-8  
https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/115894/1/Elsevier_96623.pdf

 

Rôle des connaissances implicites dans le contrôle d'un système

Cleeremans, A. (1986). Rôle des connaissances implicites dans le contrôle d'un système. BVPP, 2.  

 

Articles dans des revues sans comité de lecture

2020

What drive information-seeking in healthy and addicted behaviors

Cogliati Dezza, I., Noël, X., Cleeremans, A., & Yu, A. J. (2020). What drive information-seeking in healthy and addicted behaviors. BioRxiv.  
https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/316105/3/2020.02.19.955989v2.full.pdf

 

1998

L'esprit pluriel

Missa, J.-N. (1998). L'esprit pluriel. Sciences et avenir, 16-19.  

 

Communications publiées lors de congrès ou colloques nationaux et internationaux

A paraître

La fin de l'histoire, l'épistémè et la technique

Daled, P.-F. (2011). La fin de l'histoire, l'épistémè et la technique: Hegel, Foucault et le “ jeune Hottois ”. Colloque international « Les philosophes et le futur » (28, 29 et 30 avril 2011: Université libre de Bruxelles)  

 

La réception de l'“ Histoire des religions ” de Goblet d'Alviella (1884-1887)

Daled, P.-F. (2011). La réception de l'“ Histoire des religions ” de Goblet d'Alviella (1884-1887). In Cent cinquante ans d'étude des religions à l'Université libre de Bruxelles, Problèmes d'histoire des religions Bruxelles: Éditions de l'Université de Bruxelles.  

 

2018

Cognitive enhancement and doping in sport

Missa, J.-N. (2018). Cognitive enhancement and doping in sport. In Proceedings of the Bial Foundation's 12th Symposium "Behind and beyond the Brain" Porto: Rebelo - Artes Gráficas.  

 

The Exploration-Exploitation Dilemma as a Tool for Studying Addiction

Cogliati Dezza, I., Noël, X., Cleeremans, A., & Yu, A. J. (2018). The Exploration-Exploitation Dilemma as a Tool for Studying Addiction. Cognitive Computational Neuroscience(Philadelphia)  

 

2014

Developing new frontiers in the Rubber Hand Illusion: Design of an open source robotic hand to better understand prosthetics

De Beir, A., Caspar, E., Yernaux, F., Magalhaes De Saldanha D, P., Vanderborght, B., & Cleeremans, A. (2014). Developing new frontiers in the Rubber Hand Illusion: Design of an open source robotic hand to better understand prosthetics. IEEE International Symposium The 23rd IEEE International Symposium on Robot and Human Interactive Communication(August 25-29, 2014. ,: Edinburgh, Scotland, UK)  

 

2013

The inefficacy and adverse effects of anti-doping policy

Missa, J.-N. (2013). The inefficacy and adverse effects of anti-doping policy. In Thematic meeting of the Monitoring Group, Anti-doping education and prevention: luxury or necessity?, Council of Europe, 12 April 2013, Document T-DO (2013)20, 2013 Council of Europe, Document T-DO (2013)20, 2013.  

 

2011

L'hommage à Ferrer 

Daled, P.-F. (2011). L'hommage à Ferrer : la naissance d'un “ rite ” à l'Université libre de Bruxelles (1909-1939). In Francisco Ferrer: Cent ans après son exécution. Les avatars d'une image (pp. 231-247). (La Pensée et les Hommes, 79-80). Bruxelles: Éditions Espace de Libertés.  

 

Soins et privation de liberté sont-ils compatibles ?

Daled, P.-F. (2011). Soins et privation de liberté sont-ils compatibles ?: Approches éthiques. In La protection de la personne des malades mentaux: Ethique, Médecine et Justice (pp. 279-311) Bruxelles: La Charte Editions juridiques.  

 

L'image de Denis Diderot dans l'historiographie philosophique française du début du XIXe siècle

Daled, P.-F. (2011). L'image de Denis Diderot dans l'historiographie philosophique française du début du XIXe siècle: un “ éclectique moderne ”. In T. Belleguic (Ed.), Diderot Studies XXXI (pp. 107-123) Genève: Librairie Droz.  

 

2010

Is unconscious thought a delayed first impression?

Waroquier, L., Marchiori, D., Klein, O., & Cleeremans, A. (2010). Is unconscious thought a delayed first impression?: The merits of first impressions and of conscious deliberation in complex decision making. Annual Meeting of the Belgian Association for Psychological Science (p. 22) (May 28th: Brussels (Belgium)).  

 

2009

Metacognitive networks and measures of consciousness

Cleeremans, A., Pasquali, A., & Timmermans, B. (2009). Metacognitive networks and measures of consciousness. Proceedings of the 31st Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society  

 

Chunking in serial reaction time tasks

Pasquali, A., Jiménez, L., & Cleeremans, A. (2009). Chunking in serial reaction time tasks: An objective measure of conscious learning. XVIth meeting of the European Society for Cognitive Psychology (p. 43) (September 2-5, 2009: Krakow (Poland)).  

 

To think or not to think

Cleeremans, A., Waroquier, L., Marchiori, D., & Klein, O. (2009). To think or not to think: Revisiting Unconscious Thought Theory. XVIth meeting of the European Society for Cognitive Psychology (p. 105) (September 2-5, 2009: Krakow (Poland)).  

 

Three awareness scales predict performance in a visual identification task, and suggest no performance without awareness

Timmermans, B., Sandberg, K., Bibby, B., Cleeremans, A., & Overgaard, M. (2009). Three awareness scales predict performance in a visual identification task, and suggest no performance without awareness. XVIth meeting of the European Society for Cognitive Psychology (p. 106) (September 2-5, 2009: Krakow (Poland)).  

 

«Enhancement» Introduction à l'éthique et à la philosophie de la médecine d'amélioration

Missa, J.-N., & Perbal, L. (2009). «Enhancement» Introduction à l'éthique et à la philosophie de la médecine d'amélioration. In «Enhancement » : Ethique et Philosophie de la Médecine d'Amélioration (pp. 7-17). (Annales de philosophie). Paris: Vrin.  

 

2008

Is unconscious thought more efficient than conscious thought when choosing among complex alternatives?

Waroquier, L., Marchiori, D., Klein, O., & Cleeremans, A. (2008). Is unconscious thought more efficient than conscious thought when choosing among complex alternatives? 9th Annual Meeting of the Society for Personality and Social Psychology (Albuquerque, New Mexico)  

 

Is unconscious thought more efficient than conscious thought when choosing among complex alternatives?

Waroquier, L., Marchiori, D., Klein, O., & Cleeremans, A. (2008). Is unconscious thought more efficient than conscious thought when choosing among complex alternatives? Transfer of Knowledge Conference 10th European Social Cognition Network (p. 31) (2008: Volterra, Italy).  

 

Is unconscious thought more efficient than conscious thought when choosing among complex alternatives?

Waroquier, L., Marchiori, D., Klein, O., & Cleeremans, A. (2008). Is unconscious thought more efficient than conscious thought when choosing among complex alternatives? Judgement and Decision Making Preconference SPSP (2008: Albuquerque, New Mexico)  

 

To think or not to think that's the question

Waroquier, L., Marchiori, D., Klein, O., & Cleeremans, A. (2008). To think or not to think that's the question: Is unconscious thought more efficient than conscious thought when choosing among complex alternatives? Annual Meeting of the Belgian Association for Psychological Science (Leuven : University of Leuven)  

 

Naissance de la psychopharmacologie en Europe et aux Etats-Unis (1950-1970)

Missa, J.-N. (2008). Naissance de la psychopharmacologie en Europe et aux Etats-Unis (1950-1970). In C. Debru (Ed.), L'essor des neurosciences: De la physiologie à la cognition 1945-1975 Paris: Hermann.  

 

Franc-maçonnerie et philosophie dans les premières années de la Belgique indépendante

Daled, P.-F. (2008). Franc-maçonnerie et philosophie dans les premières années de la Belgique indépendante. In Philosophies et idéologies maçonniques (pp. 81-93). (La Pensée et les Hommes, 66). Bruxelles: Éditions Espace de Libertés.  

 

2006

The role of time in learning processes without awareness

Vandenberghe, M., Destrebecqz, A., Fery, P., & Cleeremans, A. (2006). The role of time in learning processes without awareness: comparaison between young, old, and amnesic participants. Proceedings of the 2006Annual meeting of the Belgian Association for Psychological Science (p. 68) (19 May 2006: Ulg, Liège, Belgium).  

 

Temporality, intention and consciousness of movement

Sarrazin, J.-C., Cleeremans, A., & Haggard, P. (2006). Temporality, intention and consciousness of movement. Xthe international congress of the Association for the scientific study of Consciousness (23-26 June 2006: Oxford, England)  

 

Aux origines du principe de “ laïcité ”

Daled, P.-F. (2006). Aux origines du principe de “ laïcité ”. In Laïcité et sécularisation dans l'Union européenne (pp. 35-43). (Problèmes d'histoire des religions, XVI). Bruxelles: Éditions de l'Université de Bruxelles.  

 

2005

The role of time in learning processes without awareness

Vandenberghe, M., Gaillard, V., Destrebecqz, A., & Cleeremans, A. (2005). The role of time in learning processes without awareness: comparison between amnesic and healthy participants. Proceedings of the 14th Meeting of the European Society for cognitive Psychology (p. 25) (31 August-3 September: Leiden, Netherlands).  

 

Consciousness, control, and ageing

Gaillard, V., Vandenberghe, M., Destrebecqz, A., & Cleeremans, A. (2005). Consciousness, control, and ageing: a graded relationship? Proceedings of the 14th Meeting of the European Society for cgnitive Psychology (p. 24) (31 August-3 September: Leiden, Netherlands).  

 

Dynamics of memory and the process of consolidation

Cleeremans, A., Sarrazin, J.-C., & Haggard, P. (2005). Dynamics of memory and the process of consolidation: A study of the operational nature of consciousness. Proceedings of the 18th Workshop of Marie Curie Fellows (pp. 44-48).  

 

Dynamics of memory and the process of consolidation

Sarrazin, J.-C., & Cleeremans, A. (2005). Dynamics of memory and the process of consolidation: a study of the operational nature of consciousness. XVIth Annual conference Forum Engelberg (22-25 May: Engelberg)  

 

2004

Sequence learning without awareness

Vandenberghe, M., Destrebecqz, A., Fery, P., & Cleeremans, A. (2004). Sequence learning without awareness: new evidence from amnesic patients. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Belgian Psychological Society (p. 65) (5 May 2004: ULB, Belgium).  

 

Sequence learning without awareness

Vandenberghe, M., Destrebecqz, A., Fery, P., & Cleeremans, A. (2004). Sequence learning without awareness: new evidence from amnesic patients. Program book of the 8th Annual meeting of the Association for the Scientific Study of Consciousness (p. 73) (24-28 June 2004: Antwerpen, Belgium).  

 

Ageing and the relationships between consciousness and control

Gaillard, V., Destrebecqz, A., & Cleeremans, A. (2004). Ageing and the relationships between consciousness and control. In A. Casini & O. Klein (Eds.), Proceedings of the annual meeting of Belgian psychological society (p. 50) Presses Universitaires de Bruxelles.  

 

Applying forward models to sequence learning

Theofilou, D., Destrebecqz, A., & Cleeremans, A. (2004). Applying forward models to sequence learning: A connectionist implementation. In H. Bowman & C. Labiouse (Eds.), Connectionist Models of Cognition and Perception II (pp. 51-61) World Scientific.  
https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/55214/4/8c310ce4-765b-432a-874d-f9255c8e429b.txt

 

Effects of divided attention on controlled and automatic influences of memory in artificial grammar learning

Balas, R., Wierzschon, M., & Cleeremans, A. (2004). Effects of divided attention on controlled and automatic influences of memory in artificial grammar learning. Program book of the 8th Annual Meeting of the Association for the Scientific Study of Consciousness (p. 44).  

 

2003

Exploring the role of inner speech in sequence learning

Gaillard, V., & Cleeremans, A. (2003). Exploring the role of inner speech in sequence learning. In E. Verstraeten, F. Van Overwalle, T. Vanhoomissen, R. Cluydts, & B. Timmermans (Eds.), Proceedings of the annual meeting of Belgian psychological society (p. 66) Veenendaal: Universal Press.  

 

Cognitive control

Gaillard, V., & Cleeremans, A. (2003). Cognitive control: exploring the role of inner speech in sequence learning. In T. Bajo & J. Lupianez (Eds.), Proceedings of the XIII conference of the European society of cognitive psychology (p. 517) Editorial Universidad de Granada.  

 

Incidental learning of background scene context in a visual search task

Reuter, R., & Cleeremans, A. (2003). Incidental learning of background scene context in a visual search task: No transfer to a change detection task. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Belgian Psychological Society (p. 38).  

 

Contextual cueing of visuo-spatial attention

Reuter, R., Cleeremans, A., & Lejeune, O. (2003). Contextual cueing of visuo-spatial attention: Eploring the effect of probabilistic contexts. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Belgian Psychological (p. 70).  

 

Y a-t-il des textes "sacrés" en philosophie ? Le cas du marxisme aux confins du politique et du philosophique

Daled, P.-F. (2003). Y a-t-il des textes "sacrés" en philosophie ? Le cas du marxisme aux confins du politique et du philosophique. In A. Dierkens & J. Marx (Eds.), La sacralisation du pouvoir : images et mises en scène (pp. 225-247). (Problèmes d'histoire des religions, 13). Bruxelles: Editions de l'Université Bruxelles.  

 

2002

Learning without awareness

Schmidt, N., & Cleeremans, A. (2002). Learning without awareness: The influence of the sequence structure in the serial reaction time task. Proceedings of the SBP - EPC Conference (p. 128).  

 

La polysémie du terme “ secte ” et son usage en histoire de la philosophie aux XVIIe et XVIIIe siècles

Daled, P.-F. (2002). La polysémie du terme “ secte ” et son usage en histoire de la philosophie aux XVIIe et XVIIIe siècles. In « Sectes » et « hérésies », de l'Antiquité à nos jours: Problèmes d'histoire des religions (pp. 15-28) Editions de l'Université Libre de Bruxelles.  

 

2001

Rules vs. statistics in implicit learning of biconditional grammars

Timmermans, B., & Cleeremans, A. (2001). Rules vs. statistics in implicit learning of biconditional grammars. In R. M. French & J. P. Sougné (Eds.), Proceedings of the Sixth Neural Computation and Psychology Workshop: Connectionist Models of Learning, and Development, and Evolution (pp. 185-196) Springer-Verlag.  
https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/55215/4/a136b99a-0992-4271-8cd7-799aa0bdcb4e.txt

 

2000

Rules versus statistics in biconditional grammar learning

Timmermans, B., & Cleeremans, A. (2000). Rules versus statistics in biconditional grammar learning: A simulation based on Shanks et al. (1997). Proceedings of the Twenty-Second Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society (pp. 947-952) (1997).  
https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/55217/4/0392296b-e0b0-4cfd-b62b-8db0792cddc7.txt

 

Les courants de pensée spiritualiste et matérialiste à l'ULB au XIXe siècle

Daled, P.-F. (2000). Les courants de pensée spiritualiste et matérialiste à l'ULB au XIXe siècle. In Laïcité et spiritualités: La Pensée et les Hommes (pp. 83-93) Editions de l'Université Libre de Bruxelles.  

 

Une définition des termes

Daled, P.-F. (2000). Une définition des termes: la “ laïcisation ” du militant au XIXe siècle et au début du XXe siècle. In Militantisme et Militants EVO.  

 

1999

Krausismo y psicología fisiológica en la Universidad libre de Bruselas en el siglo XIX

Daled, P.-F. (1999). Krausismo y psicología fisiológica en la Universidad libre de Bruselas en el siglo XIX. In La actualidad del krausismo en su contexto europeo (pp. 115-140) Madrid: Parteluz.  

 

1998

The serial reaction time task

Boyer, M., Destrebecqz, A., & Cleeremans, A. (1998). The serial reaction time task: learning without knowing or knowing without learning? In M. A. Gernsbacher & S. J. Derry (Eds.), Proceedings of the twentieth Annual conference of the cognitive science society (pp. 167-172) Mahwah, N.J. ; London: Lawrence Erlbaum.  
https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/40971/4/002daa98-9855-4d11-ab47-37d7fc755f51.txt

 

« L'émergence d'un matérialisme athée lors des Congrès internationaux d'étudiants de Liège (1865), Bruxelles (1867) et Gand (1868)

Daled, P.-F. (1998). « L'émergence d'un matérialisme athée lors des Congrès internationaux d'étudiants de Liège (1865), Bruxelles (1867) et Gand (1868). In L'intelligentsia européenne en mutation 1850-1875: Problèmes d'histoire des religions (pp. 45-56) Editions de l'Université Libre de Bruxelles.  

 

1997

Incremental sequence learning

Destrebecqz, A., & Cleeremans, A. (1997). Incremental sequence learning. In M. G. Shafto & P. Langley (Eds.), Proceedings of the nineteenth annual conference of the Cognitive Science Society (pp. 119-124) Mahwah, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum.  

 

1996

Incremental sequence learning

Cleeremans, A. (1996). Incremental sequence learning. Proceedings of the 9th Conference of the European Society for Cognitive Psychology (p. 93).  

 

Connectionist vs. rule-based accounts of sequence learning

Jiménez, L., & Cleeremans, A. (1996). Connectionist vs. rule-based accounts of sequence learning. Proceedings of the 9th Conference of the European Society for Cognitive Psychology (p. 93).  

 

1995

Implicit learning in the presence of multiple cues

Cleeremans, A. (1995). Implicit learning in the presence of multiple cues. In Proceedings of the Seventeenth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society (pp. 298-303) Erlbaum.  

 

Abstraction and memory for instances in implicit learning

Cleeremans, A. (1995). Abstraction and memory for instances in implicit learning. Proceedings of the Eighth Conference of the European Society for Cognitive Psychology (p. 15).  

 

La notion de Dieu dans la pensée du Comte Goblet d'Alviella

Daled, P.-F. (1995). La notion de Dieu dans la pensée du Comte Goblet d'Alviella. In Eugène Goblet d'Alviella, historien et franc-maçon: Problèmes d'histoire des religions (pp. 81-88) Editions de l'Université Libre de Bruxelles.  

 

1994

Direct and indirect measures of implicit learning

Jiménez, L., & Cleeremans, A. (1994). Direct and indirect measures of implicit learning. In Proceedings of the Sixteenth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society (pp. 445-450) Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.  

 

1993

Attention and awareness in sequence learning

Cleeremans, A. (1993). Attention and awareness in sequence learning. In Proceedings of the Fiftheenth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society (pp. 330-335) Erlbaum.  
https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/55879/4/f21f669b-434c-4a3d-8518-2eddc962d907.txt

 

Attention and awareness in sequence learning

Cleeremans, A. (1993). Attention and awareness in sequence learning. Sixth Conference of the European Society for Cognitive Psychology. Vol. 22.  

 

1992

The representation of structure in explicit prediction tasks

Cleeremans, A. (1992). The representation of structure in explicit prediction tasks. Attention & Performance XV: Conscious and non-conscious information processing (July 26-August 1st)  

 

1991

Implicit detection of event interdependencies, and a PDP model of the process

Kushner, M., Cleeremans, A., & Reber, A. (1991). Implicit detection of event interdependencies, and a PDP model of the process. In Proceedings of the Thirteenth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society (pp. 215-220) Erlbaum.  
https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/55881/4/de5e31fa-577e-4896-82f5-d017edf0be89.txt

 

1990

Learning the structure of event sequences

Cleeremans, A., & McClelland, J. L. (1990). Learning the structure of event sequences. In Proceedings of the Twelfth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society (pp. 709-716) Erlbaum.  

 

1989

Learning sequential structure in simple recurrent networks

Cleeremans, A., McClelland, J. L., & Servan-Schreiber, D. (1989). Learning sequential structure in simple recurrent networks. In Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 1 D.S. Touretzky.  

 

1987

Implicit processing in control tasks

Karnas, G., & Cleeremans, A. (1987). Implicit processing in control tasks: Some Simulation Results. First European Meeting on Cognitive Science Approaches to Process Control (October 19-20, 1987: Marcoussis (France))  

 

Participations à des congrès et colloques internationaux

2022

Bioéthique et science-fiction: zoom sur la pensée de Gilbert Hottois

Missa, J.-N. (2022). Bioéthique et science-fiction: zoom sur la pensée de Gilbert Hottois. Paper session presented at Colloque "Ce que le cinéma dit (ou ne dit pas) de la bioéthique et du droit » (24 novembre 2022: Faculté de Droit de l'Université de Clermont Ferrand).  

 

Performer, c'est dans les gènes?

Missa, J.-N. (2022). Performer, c'est dans les gènes? Paper session presented at Colloque Sport Unlimitech (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=btXP_pEdgdA: 16 septembre 2022: Lille, France).  

 

Le sport et l'homme augmenté

Missa, J.-N. (2022). Le sport et l'homme augmenté. Paper session presented at COLLOQUE ‘TRANSHUMANISME, HUMAIN AUGMENTÉ: UTOPIE OU CAUCHEMAR?' (3 juin 2022: Mohammed VI Polytechnic University, Benguerir, Maroc).  

 

Collective Intelligence and Transhumanism

Missa, J.-N. (2022). Collective Intelligence and Transhumanism. Paper session presented at COLLOQUE ‘TRANSHUMANISME, HUMAIN AUGMENTÉ: UTOPIE OU CAUCHEMAR?' (2022-06-02: Mohammed VI Polytechnic University, Benguerir, Maroc).  

 

Le cyborg et le transhumain

Missa, J.-N. (2022). Le cyborg et le transhumain. Paper session presented at PhiloDay 2022 (2022-03-17: EEB4, Bruxelles).  

 

2021

Objectif Mars ? Utopie, échappatoire, étape utile pour le développement de l'humanité ?

Missa, J.-N. (2021). Objectif Mars ? Utopie, échappatoire, étape utile pour le développement de l'humanité ? Paper session presented at Objectif Mars ? (Séance commune des Classes de l'ARB) (19 juin 2021: Académie Royale de Belgique).  

 

2020

Du destin génétique au choix génétique. Réflexions sur l'eugénisme techno-libéral contemporain

Missa, J.-N. (2020). Du destin génétique au choix génétique. Réflexions sur l'eugénisme techno-libéral contemporain. Paper session presented at L'eugénisme en question: généalogie, transmissions et savoirs de l'hérédité du moyen âge à nos jours (7 septembre 2020: Université de Lorraine, Metz).  

 

2019

Respect: être humain et technologie médicale, La déontologie médicale aujourd'hui

Missa, J.-N. (2019). Respect: être humain et technologie médicale, La déontologie médicale aujourd'hui. Paper session presented at La déontologie médicale aujourd'hui, Colloque organisé par le Conseil national de l'Ordre des médecins, Ecole Royale Militaire, Bruxelles (29 novembre 2019).  

 

Le dopage entre sport et génétique

Missa, J.-N. (2019). Le dopage entre sport et génétique. Paper session presented at Colloque santé et droit de choisir, Faculté de droit, Université Clermont Auvergne, Clermont Ferrand (28 novembre 2019).  

 

Réflexions sur l'augmentation de l'humain par la technologie

Missa, J.-N. (2019). Réflexions sur l'augmentation de l'humain par la technologie. Paper session presented at Conférences de l'Extension de l'ULB à La Louvière (14 novembre 2019).  

 

L'augmentation de l'humain par la biomédecine: une approche philosophique

Missa, J.-N. (2019). L'augmentation de l'humain par la biomédecine: une approche philosophique. Paper session presented at Cycle parisien 2019 du Collège Belgique, Délégation générale Wallonie-Bruxelles, Paris (24 octobre 2019).  

 

Modifier l'homme pour coloniser l'espace?

Missa, J.-N. (2019). Modifier l'homme pour coloniser l'espace? Paper session presented at Cycle de Conférences Penser la terre et l'espace, Collège Belgique, Académie Royale de Belgique (16 octobre 2019).  

 

Gilbert Hottois: un penseur transhumaniste?

Missa, J.-N. (2019). Gilbert Hottois: un penseur transhumaniste? Paper session presented at Table ronde sur la philosophie de Gilbert Hottois, Colloque Hommage à Gilbert Hottois: la bioéthique et le transhumanisme au XXIe siècle, Université Alassane Ouattara, Bouaké, Côte d'Ivoire (27 septembre 2019).  

 

Transcendance noire. Gilbert Hottois et le transhumanisme

Missa, J.-N. (2019). Transcendance noire. Gilbert Hottois et le transhumanisme. Paper session presented at Colloque Hommage à Gilbert Hottois: la bioéthique et le transhumanisme au XXIe siècle, Université Alassane Ouattara, Bouaké, Côte d'Ivoire (26 septembre 2019).  

 

Gilbert Hottois et la species technica

Missa, J.-N. (2019). Gilbert Hottois et la species technica. Paper session presented at XXV Seminario Internacional de Bioética, Universidad El Bosque, Bogota (16 août 2019).  

 

Doping in sport: ethics and philosophy

Missa, J.-N. (2019). Doping in sport: ethics and philosophy. Paper session presented at Conferencia del Departamento de Bioética, Universidad El Bosque, Bogota (August 15, 2019).  

 

Médecine d'amélioration: la question du dopage

Missa, J.-N. (2019). Médecine d'amélioration: la question du dopage. Paper session presented at Module dopage et assuétude, Cycle de Formation de la FSM, ULB (9 mai 2019).  

 

Le transhumanisme

Missa, J.-N. (2019). Le transhumanisme. Paper session presented at Cycle de conférences des Alumni de Polytechnique, ULB.  

 

Futur de l'homme et biomédecine

Missa, J.-N. (2019). Futur de l'homme et biomédecine. Paper session presented at Conférence CEPULB, Maison communale de Woluwe.  

 

Neurosciences, IA, conscience

Missa, J.-N. (2019). Neurosciences, IA, conscience. Paper session presented at Conférence-débat à la Chapelle Musicale reine Elisabeth, Waterloo.  

 

Philosophie du dopage et valeurs du sport

Missa, J.-N. (2019). Philosophie du dopage et valeurs du sport. Paper session presented at Cycle de conférences de l'Alliance Française à la Commission Européenne, Bruxelles.  

 

L'homme face au transhumanisme

Missa, J.-N. (2019). L'homme face au transhumanisme. Paper session presented at Cycle de conférences du CEPULB, Bruxelles, ULB.  

 

2018

Cerveau stimulé, esprit augmenté ?

Missa, J.-N. (2018). Cerveau stimulé, esprit augmenté ? Paper session presented at Colloque "Serons-nous, demain, surhumains ? (30 Novembre 2018: Nantes, Le Lieu Unique).  

 

L'utilisation de la psychochirurgie relève-t-elle de l'éthique?

Missa, J.-N. (2018). L'utilisation de la psychochirurgie relève-t-elle de l'éthique? Paper session presented at Congrès français de psychiatrie (10e édition) (29 novembre 2018: Nantes).  

 

Dopage cognitif, dopage sportif: approches philosophiques sur l'effacement des frontières entre le thérapeutique et le mélioratif en biomédecine

Missa, J.-N. (2018). Dopage cognitif, dopage sportif: approches philosophiques sur l'effacement des frontières entre le thérapeutique et le mélioratif en biomédecine. Paper session presented at Cycle de conférences du service de psychiatrie (Hôpital Psychiatrique Saint Bernard: 18 octobre 2018).  

 

Transhumanisme & homme augmenté: vers un changement de paradigme

Missa, J.-N. (2018). Transhumanisme & homme augmenté: vers un changement de paradigme. Paper session presented at Forum Addictions & Société (17 octobre 2018: Bruxelles).  

 

The Exploration-Exploitation Dilemma as a Tool for Studying Addiction.

Cogliati Dezza, I., Noël, X., Cleeremans, A., & Yu, A. J. (2018). The Exploration-Exploitation Dilemma as a Tool for Studying Addiction. Paper session presented at Cognitive Computational Neuroscience.  

 

How using brain-machine interfaces influences the human sense of agency

Caspar, E., De Beir, A., Lauwers, G., Cleeremans, A., & Vanderborght, B. (2018). How using brain-machine interfaces influences the human sense of agency. Paper session presented at ASCC, Association for the scientific study of consciousness (Krakow, Poland).  

 

Histoire de la découverte des psychotropes (1952-1962)

Missa, J.-N. (2018). Histoire de la découverte des psychotropes (1952-1962). Paper session presented at Conférence de clôture du Réseau fribourgeois de santé mentale (RFSM) (26 juin 2017: CHU-Marsens (Suisse)).  

 

The effect of military training on sense of agency

Caspar, E., Lo Bue, S., Magalhães De Saldanha da Gama, P. P., Haggard, P., & Cleeremans, A. (2018). The effect of military training on sense of agency. Paper session presented at ESCAN, European Society for Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience (Leiden, The Netherlands).  

 

Recipe for Exploring the Unknown: Information Value, Cognitive Control and dACC as the Main Ingredient

Cogliati Dezza, I., Cleeremans, A., & Alexander, W. (2018). Recipe for Exploring the Unknown: Information Value, Cognitive Control and dACC as the Main Ingredient. Paper session presented at Belgian Association for Psychological Sciences.  

 

Humanisme et transhumanisme face à la question de l'augmentation de l'humain

Missa, J.-N. (2018). Humanisme et transhumanisme face à la question de l'augmentation de l'humain. Paper session presented at L'humanisme en question — Colloque intermédiaire de l'ASPLF (19 avril 2018: CIERL & Académie Royale de Belgique, Bruxelles).  

 

Ethics of enhancement

Missa, J.-N. (2018). Ethics of enhancement. Paper session presented at Bial Foundation's 12th Symposium "Behind and Beyond the Brain » (April 6, 2018: Porto).  

 

Cognitive enhancement and doping in sport

Missa, J.-N. (2018). Cognitive enhancement and doping in sport. Paper session presented at Enhancing the mind —Bial Foundation's 12th Symposium "Behind and Beyond the Brain » (April 5, 2018: Porto).  

 

Enjeux éthiques et philosophiques des applications non-thérapeutiques des technosciences biomédicales et principe de précaution

Missa, J.-N. (2018). Enjeux éthiques et philosophiques des applications non-thérapeutiques des technosciences biomédicales et principe de précaution. Paper session presented at Colloque Quelles limites pour les technosciences en santé ? (13 mars 2018: Ecole de Droit, Université Clermont Auvergne, Clermont Ferrand).  

 

L'esprit et le cerveau

Missa, J.-N. (2018). L'esprit et le cerveau. Paper session presented at Cycle de conférences sur l'esprit-cerveau (22 février 2018: Faculté de Théologie, UCL, Louvain La Neuve).  

 

De l'homme réparé à l'homme augmenté dans le domaine du sport

Missa, J.-N. (2018). De l'homme réparé à l'homme augmenté dans le domaine du sport. Paper session presented at 3ème colloque "sport et handicap" de la Chaire sport santé bien être (9 février 2018: Université de Poitiers).  

 

La médecine d'amélioration, quelles perspectives éthiques?

Missa, J.-N. (2018). La médecine d'amélioration, quelles perspectives éthiques? Paper session presented at 16e Congrès de l'Encéphale (25 janvier 2018: Palais des Congrès).  

 

2017

Le dopage sportif,

Missa, J.-N. (2017). Le dopage sportif, Paper session presented at Cycle de conférences du service de psychiatrie (11 décembre 2017: CHU Brugmann, Bruxelles).  

 

IA, Transhumanisme et Augmentation de l'humain

Missa, J.-N. (2017). IA, Transhumanisme et Augmentation de l'humain. Paper session presented at Cycle de Conférence de l'APO.G (Association Pour l'Organisation et la Gouvernance de l'Entreprise) (9 novembre 2017: Bruxelles).  

 

Philosophie du dopage et valeurs du sport

Missa, J.-N. (2017). Philosophie du dopage et valeurs du sport. Paper session presented at Cycle de conférences du Collège Belgique (26 octobre 2017: Académie Royale de Belgique, Charleroi).  

 

Augmentation et amélioration de l'humain

Missa, J.-N. (2017). Augmentation et amélioration de l'humain. Paper session presented at Conférences du CAL (25 octobre 2017: CHR Namur).  

 

Faut-il tuer le transhumanisme?

Missa, J.-N. (2017). Faut-il tuer le transhumanisme? Paper session presented at Colloque Du patient numérique aux trajets de soins augmentés,  

 

The effect of military training on sense of agency

Caspar, E., Lo Bue, S., Magalhães De Saldanha da Gama, P. P., Haggard, P., & Cleeremans, A. (2017). The effect of military training on sense of agency. Paper session presented at ASCC, Association for the scientific study of consciousness (Beijing, China).  

 

L'expérimentation en psychiatrie biologique: une approche historique et éthique

Missa, J.-N. (2017). L'expérimentation en psychiatrie biologique: une approche historique et éthique. Paper session presented at 115ème Colloque International de l'association du Congrès de Psychiatrie et de Neurologie de Langue Française (CPNLF) (14 juin 2017: Dijon).  

 

The effect of military training on sense of agency

Caspar, E., Lo Bue, S., Magalhães De Saldanha da Gama, P. P., Haggard, P., & Cleeremans, A. (2017). The effect of military training on sense of agency. Paper session presented at BAPS, Belgian Association for Psychological Sciences.  

 

L'intelligence artificielle et le transhumanisme

Missa, J.-N. (2017). L'intelligence artificielle et le transhumanisme. Paper session presented at Conférence "Y a-t-il un pilote dans l'algorithme?", Philosophie & Management (31 mai 2017: Bruxelles).  

 

Learning the value of information and reward over time when solving exploration-exploitation problems

Cogliati Dezza, I., Yu, A. J., Cleeremans, A., & Alexander, W. (2017). Learning the value of information and reward over time when solving exploration-exploitation problems. Paper session presented at Belgian Association for Psychological Sciences.  

 

Transhumanisme et prolongation de la vie

Missa, J.-N. (2017). Transhumanisme et prolongation de la vie. Paper session presented at Conférence "Et si nous ne devions pas mourir ?", Université Catholique de Louvain (15 mai 2017: Louvain-la-Neuve, UCL).  

 

Pluralisme et médecine d'amélioration

Missa, J.-N. (2017). Pluralisme et médecine d'amélioration. Paper session presented at Conférence sur la médecine d'amélioration, CAL (25 mars 2017: Bruxelles).  

 

L'idéologie transhumaniste

Missa, J.-N. (2017). L'idéologie transhumaniste. Paper session presented at « Humains, post Humains », Forum Européen de Bioéthique (31 janvier 2017: Strasbourg).  

 

Introduction à la conférence"Fonctionnement et dysfonctionnements du système auditif : des gènes à la thérapie"

Missa, J.-N. (2017). Introduction à la conférence"Fonctionnement et dysfonctionnements du système auditif : des gènes à la thérapie". Paper session presented at "Fonctionnement et dysfonctionnements du système auditif : des gènes à la thérapie", Collège Belgique, Académie Royale de Belgique (18 janvier 2017: Académie Royale de belgique).  

 

2016

Transhumanisme et médecine d'amélioration

Missa, J.-N. (2016). Transhumanisme et médecine d'amélioration. Paper session presented at Rencontres d'Hippocrate "Qu'est-ce que le transhumanisme ?" (8 décembre 2016: Paris, Université Paris 5, Faculté de Médecine).  

 

Transhumanisme et médecine d'amélioration.

Missa, J.-N. (2016). Transhumanisme et médecine d'amélioration. Paper session presented at Colloque "Qu'est-ce que le transhumanisme ?", Université Paris Descartes (8 décembre 2016: Paris).  

 

Les enjeux éthiques du transhumanisme

Missa, J.-N. (2016). Les enjeux éthiques du transhumanisme. Paper session presented at Colloque sur la future place de l'homme dans l'univers et les enjeux éthiques du transhumanisme (10 novembre 2016: Charleroi).  

 

Le transhumanisme : doit-on avoir peur de ce que va devenir la science de demain ?

Missa, J.-N. (2016). Le transhumanisme : doit-on avoir peur de ce que va devenir la science de demain ? Paper session presented at Conférence introductive du Conseil de l'Ordre des Médecins (22 octobre 2016: Namur).  

 

Tensions entre positions artificialiste et naturaliste sur la question du dopage

Missa, J.-N. (2016). Tensions entre positions artificialiste et naturaliste sur la question du dopage. Paper session presented at Festivalfilosofia — "Agonismo" (16 septembre 2016: Modena, Italie).  

 

Philosophie du dopage

Missa, J.-N. (2016). Philosophie du dopage. Paper session presented at « Rencontres de Cardiologie 2016 » (1er Juin 2016: Chantilly, France).  

 

Coercion changes the sense of agency in the human brain

Caspar, E., Cleeremans, A., & Haggard, P. (2016). Coercion changes the sense of agency in the human brain. Paper session presented at BAPS, Belgian Association for Psychological Sciences (Brussels).  

 

Neurological implants and artificial intelligence: a reasonable technology?”,

Missa, J.-N. (2016). Neurological implants and artificial intelligence: a reasonable technology?”, Paper session presented at International Interdisciplinary Workshop “Moral Machines: Developments and Relations. Nanotechnologies and Hybridity (May 18-19 2016: Unesco House, Paris).  

 

2015

Prothèses, médecine d'augmentation et limites de la philosophie naturaliste

Missa, J.-N. (2015). Prothèses, médecine d'augmentation et limites de la philosophie naturaliste. Paper session presented at Colloque international "L'humain et ses prothèses" Savoirs et pratiques du corps transformé (11 décembre 2015: Université Diderot Paris 7, Paris).  

 

Médecine dopante et transformation de l'homme

Missa, J.-N. (2015). Médecine dopante et transformation de l'homme. Paper session presented at Colloque "Cyber Corps, du corps substitué au corps augmenté", "Assises du Corps Transformé" (9 et 10 octobre 2015: Centre Rabelais, Montpellier).  

 

Les équipes mobiles, une mise en tension de la psychiatrie? Aspects historiques et philosophiques

Missa, J.-N. (2015). Les équipes mobiles, une mise en tension de la psychiatrie? Aspects historiques et philosophiques. Paper session presented at Les équipes mobiles, une mise en tension de la psychiatrie? Vème congrès de l'Association francophone des équipes mobiles en psychiatrie (10 septembre 2015: Faculté de Médecine, Université Catholique de Louvain).  

 

El dopaje, laboratorio de la medicina de mejoramiento

Missa, J.-N. (2015). El dopaje, laboratorio de la medicina de mejoramiento. Paper session presented at Transhumanismo y posthumanismo, XXI Seminario Internacional de Bioética, Universitad del Bosque, Bogotá (Colombia) (23 agosto 2015: Universitad del Bosque, Bogotá (Colombia)).  

 

The sense of agency as tracking control

Caspar, E., Desantis, A., Cleeremans, A., & Haggard, P. (2015). The sense of agency as tracking control. Paper session presented at ASSC, Association for the scientific study of consciousness (Paris).  

 

Anticipation(s) : penser et agir avec le futur

Missa, J.-N. (2015). Anticipation(s) : penser et agir avec le futur. Paper session presented at Conversations "Ethique, Science et société" (9 et 10 juin 2015: Espace éthique Ile-de-France et Département de recherche en éthique de l'Université Paris Sud, Biopark-Auditorium, Paris).  

 

La médecine d'amélioration et le risque de la performance

Missa, J.-N. (2015). La médecine d'amélioration et le risque de la performance. Paper session presented at Les Soirées de l'Espace de réflexion éthique de la Fédération de recherche en santé mentale (19 mai 2015: F2RSM , Lille).  

 

Technology, intervention and control of individuals

Missa, J.-N. (2015). Technology, intervention and control of individuals. Paper session presented at Ethical and societal perspectives International Conference by the Committee on Bioethics (DH-BIO) of the Council of Europe on the Human Rights challenges aised by emerging technologies and their convergence (4-5 May 2015: Council of Europe, Strasbourg).  

 

Pensée rationnelle, pensée émotionnelle. Introduction

Missa, J.-N. (2015). Pensée rationnelle, pensée émotionnelle. Introduction. Paper session presented at Colloque Pensée rationnelle, pensée émotionnelle (23 avril 2015: Académie Royale de Belgique).  

 

Le dopage sportif

Missa, J.-N. (2015). Le dopage sportif. Paper session presented at Séminaire Sport et droit (3 avril 2015: Université de Liège).  

 

Bébés sur mesure

Missa, J.-N. (2015). Bébés sur mesure. Paper session presented at Journée des Sciences (26 mars 2015: Faculté des Sciences, ULB).  

 

What is the basis of human associative learning?

Destrebecqz, A., Bertels, J., Vande Velde, M., San Anton, E., & Cleeremans, A. (2015). What is the basis of human associative learning? Paper session presented at International Convention of Psychological Science (March 2015: Amsterdam, The Netherlands).  

 

2014

Addictions et dopage: une approche philosophique

Missa, J.-N. (2014). Addictions et dopage: une approche philosophique. Paper session presented at Journée d'études Les addictions. Drogues, plaisirs, désirs: un carrefour dangereux (9 décembre 2014: Espace Mendès France, Poitiers).  

 

Le coeur a ses raisons: neurologie de la décision

Missa, J.-N. (2014). Le coeur a ses raisons: neurologie de la décision. Paper session presented at Débats de l'ULB — "Le coeur a ses raisons: neurologie de la décision" (débat avec Alain Berthoz et Axel Cleeremans) (5 décembre 2014: ULB, Bruxelles).  

 

Philosophie du dopage et biomédecine contemporaine

Missa, J.-N. (2014). Philosophie du dopage et biomédecine contemporaine. Paper session presented at 6ème édition du Congrès Français de Psychiatrie (27 novembre 2014: Nantes).  

 

Les enjeux éthiques et philosophiques de l'interdiction du dopage dans le sport

Missa, J.-N. (2014). Les enjeux éthiques et philosophiques de l'interdiction du dopage dans le sport. Paper session presented at Rencontres du vivant - Le sport est-il en forme(s)? (20 Novembre 2014: Espace Mendès France, Poitiers).  

 

Free will : Are we all equal ?

Caspar, E., & Cleeremans, A. (2014). Free will : Are we all equal ? Paper session presented at Journée des doctorants (Université libre de Bruxelles).  

 

‘Psychothérapie ou Chimiothérapie?'

Missa, J.-N. (2014). ‘Psychothérapie ou Chimiothérapie?'. Paper session presented at Crosstalks Expert Meeting with Anne Fagot-Largeault on psychiatry (October 23, 2014: ICAB, VUB, Brussels).  

 

« Biologie et devenir de l'homme": une introduction

Missa, J.-N. (2014). « Biologie et devenir de l'homme": une introduction. Paper session presented at Colloque international « Biologie et devenir de l'homme" (9 et 10 octobre 2014: Université libre de Bruxelles).  

 

Single-Category IAT, electromyography and attention: on the temporal dynamics and the control of automatic social behaviours.

Questienne, L., Atas, A., Cleeremans, A., Klein, O., & Doyen, S. (2014). Single-Category IAT, electromyography and attention: on the temporal dynamics and the control of automatic social behaviours. Paper session presented at European Social Cognition Network (5 septembre 2014: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium).  

 

Intentional binding with a robotic hand : how much agency is modulated by embodiment ?

Caspar, E., Haggard, P., & Cleeremans, A. (2014). Intentional binding with a robotic hand : how much agency is modulated by embodiment ? Paper session presented at BAPS, Belgian Association for psychological science (May, 27th: Leuven).  

 

Neurosciences, libre arbitre et responsabilité

Missa, J.-N. (2014). Neurosciences, libre arbitre et responsabilité. Paper session presented at Colloque "Libre arbitre, déterminisme et responsabilité" (12-13 mai 2014: Université de Genève).  

 

Sport de compétition et dopage: un point de vue critique sur la politique de l'Agence mondiale antidopage (AMA)

Missa, J.-N. (2014). Sport de compétition et dopage: un point de vue critique sur la politique de l'Agence mondiale antidopage (AMA). Paper session presented at Séminaire Sport & Humanités (7 avril 2014: Université Paris Descartes, Paris).  

 

Les aspects éthiques de la médecine d'amélioration

Missa, J.-N. (2014). Les aspects éthiques de la médecine d'amélioration. Paper session presented at Conférence du CEPULB (3 avril 2014: CEPULB, ULB, Bruxelles).  

 

Le corps augmenté: une introduction philosophique

Missa, J.-N. (2014). Le corps augmenté: une introduction philosophique. Paper session presented at Colloque "Le corps augmenté : une utopie ?" (13 mars 2014: Espace Mendès-France, Poitiers).  

 

Learning to use a new virtual environment: a crucial phase for cognitive patients

Camara Lopez, M., Deliens, G., Degiorgio, C., Watelet, A., & Cleeremans, A. (2014). Learning to use a new virtual environment: a crucial phase for cognitive patients. Paper session presented at First Symposium on Serious Gaming Technology as Clinical Tool in Rehabilitation (ICT4-Rehab) (February 1, 2014: Brussels, Belgium).  

 

Imagerie Motrice et interfaces cerveau-machine

Missa, J.-N. (2014). Imagerie Motrice et interfaces cerveau-machine. Paper session presented at Colloque "L'imagerie motrice" (25 janvier 2014: ULB, Hôpital Erasme).  

 

Augmenter nos aptitudes physiques et cérébrales?

Missa, J.-N. (2014). Augmenter nos aptitudes physiques et cérébrales? Paper session presented at Rencontre Hippocrate. Augmenter nos aptitudes physiques et cérébrales : le méliorisme (15 janvier 2014: Faculté de médecine, Université Paris Descartes).  

 

Intentional Binding with a robotic hand : to what extend is agency modulated by embodiment?

Caspar, E., Haggard, P., & Cleeremans, A. (2014). Intentional Binding with a robotic hand : to what extend is agency modulated by embodiment? Paper session presented at ASSC 18 - Association for the scientific study of consciousness (July 2014: Brisbane, Australia).  

 

2013

Réflexions sur la naissance de la psychiatrie extrahospitalière à Bruxelles

Missa, J.-N. (2013). Réflexions sur la naissance de la psychiatrie extrahospitalière à Bruxelles. Paper session presented at Colloque "La fin de la folie?" (19 et 20 septembre 2013: Bruxelles).  

 

The role of consciousness in statistical learning: conceptual and methodological issues

Franco, A., Cleeremans, A., & Destrebecqz, A. (2013). The role of consciousness in statistical learning: conceptual and methodological issues. Paper session presented at 2nd Seminar on Implicit Learning (Bergen, Norway).  

 

Etre ou ne pas être biobanqué?

Missa, J.-N. (2013). Etre ou ne pas être biobanqué? Paper session presented at Colloque « Les biobanques » (17 avril 2013: Académie royale de Belgique, Bruxelles).  

 

The adverse effects of anti-doping policy

Missa, J.-N. (2013). The adverse effects of anti-doping policy. Paper session presented at Thematic meeting of the Monitoring Group, Anti-doping education and prevention: luxury or necessity? (, 12 April 2013: Council of Europe, Strasbourg).  

 

Décrypter le cerveau-Quelle évolution future de l'humanité?

Missa, J.-N. (2013). Décrypter le cerveau-Quelle évolution future de l'humanité? Paper session presented at Conférence-débat "Décrypter le cerveau-Quelle évolution future de l'humanité?" (23 mars 2013: Biovision (The world Life Sciences Forum), Paris (Cité des Sciences)).  

 

Déterminisme et libre arbitre dans les neurosciences. Réponse à Patrick Haggard (London University)

Missa, J.-N. (2013). Déterminisme et libre arbitre dans les neurosciences. Réponse à Patrick Haggard (London University). Paper session presented at Conférence sur la question du déterminisme et du libre arbitre dans les neurosciences (14 février 2013: Faculté de Psychologie, ULB).  

 

Freedom in biological research: How to consider accidental or intentional risks for populations

Missa, J.-N. (2013). Freedom in biological research: How to consider accidental or intentional risks for populations. Paper session presented at Fondation Mérieux Conference "Freedom in biological research" (February 6-8, 2013.: Veyrier-du-Lac, France).  

 

Time course of attentional bias for gambling information in problem gambling.

Brevers, D., Cleeremans, A., Bechara, A., Kornreich, C., Verbanck, P., & Noël, X. (2013). Time course of attentional bias for gambling information in problem gambling. Paper session presented at APGAC (28 June 2011: Hong-Kong, China).  

 

Fluctuations of Reaction Time Modulate Automatic Inhibition of Masked Primes.

Atas, A., & Cleeremans, A. (2013). Fluctuations of Reaction Time Modulate Automatic Inhibition of Masked Primes. Paper session presented at Annual Meeting of the Belgian Association for Psychological Sciences (BAPS) (May 28, 2013: Université Catholique de Louvain, Belgium).  

 

What is the basis of human associative learning?

Destrebecqz, A., Bertels, J., & Cleeremans, A. (2013). What is the basis of human associative learning? Paper session presented at Second Seminar on Implicit Learning (June 2013: Bergen, Norway).  

 

The role of consciousness in statistical learning: Conceptual and methodological issues

Franco, A., Bertels, J., Destrebecqz, A., & Cleeremans, A. (2013). The role of consciousness in statistical learning: Conceptual and methodological issues. Paper session presented at Second Seminar on Implicit Learning (June 2013: Bergen, Norway).  

 

2012

Aspects éthiques de la psychochirurgie des TOC

Missa, J.-N. (2012). Aspects éthiques de la psychochirurgie des TOC. Paper session presented at Séminaire de neurochirurgie (3 décembre 2012: Hôpital civil de Charleroi).  

 

Des effets pervers de l'éthique de la conviction en matière de lutte antidopage

Missa, J.-N. (2012). Des effets pervers de l'éthique de la conviction en matière de lutte antidopage. Paper session presented at Séminaire "Comment appréhender le « doping » ? Dans la Cité, dans le sport ?" (Liaison Antiprohibitionniste, Bruxelles).  

 

Les relations entre psychochirurgie et neurochirurgie de l'épilepsie

Missa, J.-N. (2012). Les relations entre psychochirurgie et neurochirurgie de l'épilepsie. Paper session presented at Colloque «Les représentations de l'épilepsie entre 1860 et 1960» (22 novembre 2012: Université de Nantes).  

 

«Lance is still a hero: stop trying to control doping in sport»

Missa, J.-N. (2012). «Lance is still a hero: stop trying to control doping in sport». Paper session presented at «Lance is still a hero: stop trying to control doping in sport», Global debate in conjunction with Google+ and YouTube on the subject of doping in sport, Intelligence Squared Debate (November, 1 2012: London).  

 

La médecine d'amélioration et la question de la justice et de la vulnérabilité

Missa, J.-N. (2012). La médecine d'amélioration et la question de la justice et de la vulnérabilité. Paper session presented at IIIe. Congrès International de Bioéthique. Justice et Vulnérabilité (29 et 30 octobre 2012: Faculté de Philosophie de l'Université de Barcelona).  

 

L'apport de la psychiatrie biologique aux neurosciences (1950-1970)

Missa, J.-N. (2012). L'apport de la psychiatrie biologique aux neurosciences (1950-1970). Paper session presented at Journée scientifique « Apports réciproques de la neurologie et de la psychiatrie » (19 octobre 2012: Centre Georges CanguilhemUniversité Paris 7).  

 

Bioéthique et amélioration

Missa, J.-N. (2012). Bioéthique et amélioration. Paper session presented at SEMINARIO DE INVESTIGACIÓN PARA DOCTORANDOS (Universidad del Bosque, Bogotá).  

 

Human biodiversity and enhancement technologies

Missa, J.-N. (2012). Human biodiversity and enhancement technologies. Paper session presented at XVIII Seminario Internacional de Bioética, Bioética y Biodiversidad (Universidad del Bosque, Bogotá).  

 

Human enhancement and the brain-mind

Missa, J.-N. (2012). Human enhancement and the brain-mind. Paper session presented at Neuroenhancement (13-15 juin 2012: Fondation Brocher, Genève).  

 

"Sport et dopage"

Missa, J.-N. (2012). "Sport et dopage". Paper session presented at Colloque Sport et dopage (14 mai 2012: Faculté de médecine, Université Paris Descartes, Paris).  

 

Empirisme thérapeutique et psychochirurgie

Missa, J.-N. (2012). Empirisme thérapeutique et psychochirurgie. Paper session presented at III Jornadas de História da Psiquiatria e Saúde Mental (3 e 4 de Maio de 2012: Coimbra).  

 

Naissance de la psychopharmacologie

Missa, J.-N. (2012). Naissance de la psychopharmacologie. Paper session presented at Séminaire du département de psychiatrie (30 mars 2012: Hôpital de Dave).  

 

Guérir ou doper. réflexions sur la médecine d'amélioration

Missa, J.-N. (2012). Guérir ou doper. réflexions sur la médecine d'amélioration. Paper session presented at Séminaire du service de psychiatrie (9 mars 2012: Hôpital Brugmann, ULB, Bruxelles).  

 

La biomédecine et le futur de l'homme

Missa, J.-N. (2012). La biomédecine et le futur de l'homme. Paper session presented at L'idéologie du progrès dans la tourmente du postmodernisme (9-11 février 2012: Académie Royale de Belgique, Bruxelles).  

 

Placebo-suggestion modulates conflict adaptation in the Stroop task

Magalhaes De Saldanha D, P., Slama, H., Caspar, E., Gevers, W., & Cleeremans, A. (2012). Placebo-suggestion modulates conflict adaptation in the Stroop task. Paper session presented at Belgian Association for Psychological Sciences (May 2012: Liège).  

 

Placebo-suggestion modulates conflict adaptation in the Stroop task

Magalhaes De Saldanha D, P., Slama, H., Caspar, E., Gevers, W., & Cleeremans, A. (2012). Placebo-suggestion modulates conflict adaptation in the Stroop task. Paper session presented at 16th annual meeting of the Association for the Scientific Study of Consciousness (July 2012: Brighton (UK)).  

 

Nonconscious instrumental learning from crowded sequences

Atas, A., Faivre, N., Timmermans, B., Cleeremans, A., & Kouider, S. (2012). Nonconscious instrumental learning from crowded sequences. Paper session presented at The annual PhD. Journey meeting (JDD) (November 8, 2012: Brussels, Belgium).  

 

Subliminal Sequence Learning In Peripheral Vision.

Atas, A., Faivre, N., Timmermans, B., Cleeremans, A., & Kouider, S. (2012). Subliminal Sequence Learning In Peripheral Vision. Paper session presented at The 16th annual meeting of the Association for the Scientific Study of Consciousness (ASSC) (July 3, 2012: Brighton, United Kingdom).  

 

2011

Eugénisme libéral et biotechnologies : aspects éthiques et philosophiques

Missa, J.-N. (2011). Eugénisme libéral et biotechnologies : aspects éthiques et philosophiques. Paper session presented at Eugénisme libéral et biotechnologies : aspects éthiques et philosophiques (14 décembre 2011: Faculté de Médecine, Université de Montpellier).  

 

Statistical learning in language acquisition : the impact of bilingualism

Franco, A., Cleeremans, A., & Destrebecqz, A. (2011). Statistical learning in language acquisition : the impact of bilingualism. Paper session presented at EMACS symposium (Université du Luxembourg).  

 

Aspects éthiques et philosophiques de la médecine d'amélioration

Missa, J.-N. (2011). Aspects éthiques et philosophiques de la médecine d'amélioration. Paper session presented at La médecine d'amélioration (12 octobre 2011: Faculté de Médecine, UCL, Bruxelles).  

 

«Prédire, prévenir, changer: avenir ou utopies?»

Missa, J.-N. (2011). «Prédire, prévenir, changer: avenir ou utopies?». Paper session presented at 3rd Convention on Health Analysis and Management, C.H.A.M (1er Octobre 2011: Chamonix).  

 

Peut-on parler de militantisme psychopharmacologique?

Missa, J.-N. (2011). Peut-on parler de militantisme psychopharmacologique? Paper session presented at Colloque "Le militantisme en psychiatrie" (29-30 septembre 2011: Bordeaux, SOFOR).  

 

Les nanotechnologies : vers un changement d'échelle éthique ?

Daled, P.-F. (2011). Les nanotechnologies : vers un changement d'échelle éthique ? Paper session presented at Colloque international (4-5 Avril 2011: Université Libre de Bruxelles).  

 

Enseigner la bioéthique à l'Université libre de Bruxelles

Daled, P.-F. (2011). Enseigner la bioéthique à l'Université libre de Bruxelles. Paper session presented at Construire et enseigner la bioéthique dans les pays francophones (au carrefour des disciplines et des pratiques: 9 Avril 2011: Université catholique de Louvain et Fondation Universitaire Notre-Dame-de-la Paix à Namur).  

 

The repeated masked paradigm or how to increase the awareness of a non-conscious stimulus.

Atas, A., Vermeiren, A., & Cleeremans, A. (2011). The repeated masked paradigm or how to increase the awareness of a non-conscious stimulus. Paper session presented at 17th meeting of the European Society for Cognitive Psychology (ESCOP) (September 4, 2011: Donostia, San Sebastian, Spain).  

 

Visual masking revisited: number of repetitions and voluntary attention modulate priming and conscious access of a masked stimulus.

Atas, A., Vermeiren, A., & Cleeremans, A. (2011). Visual masking revisited: number of repetitions and voluntary attention modulate priming and conscious access of a masked stimulus. Paper session presented at Annual Meeting of the Belgian Association for Psychological Sciences (BAPS) (May 27, 2011: Ghent, Belgium).  

 

Progrès et amélioration

Missa, J.-N. (2011). Progrès et amélioration. Paper session presented at Colloque « L'avenir du progrès » (7 février 2011: Palais du Luxembourg, Paris).  

 

Posthumanisme  et amélioration

Missa, J.-N. (2011). Posthumanisme  et amélioration. Paper session presented at Colloque « La nature humaine peut-elle être dépassée? » (6 avril 2011: UCL).  

 

Sport, dopage et médecine d'amélioration

Missa, J.-N. (2011). Sport, dopage et médecine d'amélioration. Paper session presented at Conférence (17 mai 2011: Faculté de Médecine de l'Université de Montpellier).  

 

La médecine doit-elle encourager le dopage ?

Missa, J.-N. (2011). La médecine doit-elle encourager le dopage ?: Enquête philosophique sur la biomédecine d'amélioration. Paper session presented at Conférence (29 janvier 2011: Académie Royale de Médecine de Belgique).  

 

Futur de l'homme et philosophie transhumaniste

Missa, J.-N. (2011). Futur de l'homme et philosophie transhumaniste. Paper session presented at Colloque « Les philosophes et le futur » (28-30 avril 2011: ULB).  

 

Les philosophes et le futur

Daled, P.-F. (2011). Les philosophes et le futur. Paper session presented at Colloque international "Les philosophes et le futur" (28-30 Avril 2011: Université Libre de Bruxelles).  

 

2010

Des difficultés de l'historiographie de l'athéisme

Daled, P.-F. (2010). Des difficultés de l'historiographie de l'athéisme. Paper session presented at Conférence du Centre d'éducation Permanente de l'ULB (13 décembre 2010: Université Libre de Bruxelles).  

 

Statistical Learning of two artificial languages presented successively : How conscious?

Franco, A., Cleeremans, A., & Destrebecqz, A. (2010). Statistical Learning of two artificial languages presented successively : How conscious? Paper session presented at Annual Meeting of the Belgian Association for Psychological Science (Brussels, Belgium).  

 

Une éthique de la recherche est-elle nécessaire ?

Daled, P.-F. (2010). Une éthique de la recherche est-elle nécessaire ? Paper session presented at Collège Belgique (11 mars 2010: Académie Royale des Sciences, des Lettres et des Beaux-Arts de Belgique).  

 

The Radical Plasticity Thesis

Cleeremans, A. (2010). The Radical Plasticity Thesis. Paper session presented at 4th International Conference on Cognitive Science (June 22nd: Tomsk (Russia)).  

 

Apprendre a être conscient

Cleeremans, A. (2010). Apprendre a être conscient. Paper session presented at Séminaire invite au Laboratoire URECA (May 20th: Université Charles de Gaulle, Lille (France)).  

 

Consciousness and free will

Cleeremans, A. (2010). Consciousness and free will: The radical plasticity thesis. Paper session presented at IGSN symposium organized at the Ruhr-Universität Bochum titled "Brain Reading and Consciousness" (April 12th: Bochum (Germany)).  

 

The reach of the unconscious

Cleeremans, A. (2010). The reach of the unconscious. Paper session presented at Invited seminar delivered at the Marketing Deparment of the Ecole de Management (June 10th: Grenoble (France)).  

 

The Radical Plasticity Thesis

Cleeremans, A. (2010). The Radical Plasticity Thesis. Paper session presented at Invited colloquium delivered at the Psychology Department (September 22nd: University of Lund (Sweden)).  

 

The reach of the unconscious

Cleeremans, A. (2010). The reach of the unconscious. Paper session presented at Unconscious Processes" Workshop organized under the auspices of the CEP section of the British Psychological Society (May 11th: Brighton (U.K.)).  

 

Le cerveau

Cleeremans, A. (2010). Le cerveau. Paper session presented at "Ignite" presentation at the Parc d'Attraction Scientifique in the context of the "1001 cerveaux" exhibit (March 15th: Mons (Belgium)).  

 

The radical plasticity thesis

Cleeremans, A. (2010). The radical plasticity thesis. Paper session presented at Invited conference at the Centre for the Study of the Senses (CenSes) (March 12th: University College London (U.K.)).  

 

To think or not to think?

Cleeremans, A. (2010). To think or not to think? Paper session presented at 8th Symposium of Bial Foundation titled "Intuition and decision making: Behind and Beyond the Brain" (April 7th: Porto (Portugal)).  

 

Learning to be conscious

Cleeremans, A. (2010). Learning to be conscious. Paper session presented at 11th Guadalajara Symposium on the Science of Behavior (February 22nd: Guadalajara (Mexico)).  

 

Impact et limites de l'apprentissage implicite

Cleeremans, A. (2010). Impact et limites de l'apprentissage implicite. Paper session presented at Invited seminar at the Collège de France (February 2nd: Paris (France)).  

 

Conscience et espace

Cleeremans, A. (2010). Conscience et espace. Paper session presented at Institut d'Art Contemporain (January 22nd: Lyon (France)).  

 

Qu'est-ce-que la conscience?

Cleeremans, A. (2010). Qu'est-ce-que la conscience? Paper session presented at Public conference for the cycle “Le cerveau en questions” (October 14th: Center for Scientific Culture, Charleroi (Belgium)).  

 

Des neurones à l'esprit

Cleeremans, A. (2010). Des neurones à l'esprit: Vers une science de la conscience. Paper session presented at Echos des centres de recherches contemporaines en Belgique meeting organized by the Belgian College of Neuropsychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry (October 16tth: Centre Columbian, Wavre (Belgium)).  

 

Des neurones à l'esprit

Cleeremans, A. (2010). Des neurones à l'esprit: Les mécanismes de la conscience. Paper session presented at Seminar delivered at the André Vésale Hospital (September 27th: Charleroi (Belgium)).  

 

La conscience dans tous ses états

Cleeremans, A. (2010). La conscience dans tous ses états. Paper session presented at Public conference for the cycle “Rencontres philosophiques” (October 4th: La Vénerie, Brussels (Belgium)).  

 

L'empirisme en psychiatrie

Missa, J.-N. (2010). L'empirisme en psychiatrie. Paper session presented at Conférence (11 janvier 2010: Hôpital Cochin, Service de psychiatrie, Paris).  

 

Dopage, performance, amélioration

Missa, J.-N. (2010). Dopage, performance, amélioration. Paper session presented at Conférence (20 mai 2010: Centre Georges Canguilhem, Université Paris 7).  

 

De l'amélioration des performances sportives 

Missa, J.-N. (2010). De l'amélioration des performances sportives : une introduction. Paper session presented at Colloque « De l'amélioration des performances sportives : aspects éthiques et philosophiques » (11 mai 2010: Université Paris 7 Denis Diderot).  

 

Barrières d'espèces, posthumain et médecine d'amélioration 

Missa, J.-N. (2010). Barrières d'espèces, posthumain et médecine d'amélioration : aspects éthiques et philosophiques. Paper session presented at Conférence (1er juin 2010: Université Paris 5 René Descartes).  

 

Biotechnology and the Future of Sport

Missa, J.-N. (2010). Biotechnology and the Future of Sport: Visions and Scenarios of the Future. Paper session presented at Human Enhancement : An Interdisciplinary Inquiry — 5th Enhancement Workshop (15 et 16 otobre 2010: Université Paris 5 René Descartes).  

 

Soigner les criminels ?

Missa, J.-N. (2010). Soigner les criminels ?: Pharmacologie et psychochirurgie. Paper session presented at Colloque « Crime et Folie » (1er au 6 novembre 2010: Fondation des Treilles, Tourtour).  

 

L'idéal de l'ingénieur en biomédecine et la question de l'amélioration de l'humain

Missa, J.-N. (2010). L'idéal de l'ingénieur en biomédecine et la question de l'amélioration de l'humain. Paper session presented at Colloque L'esprit d'aventure et le principe de précaution (15 au 18 septembre 2010: Académie Royale des Sciences, des Lettres et des Beaux-Arts de Belgique).  

 

Contraindre pour le bien

Daled, P.-F. (2010). Contraindre pour le bien: Approches éthiques. Paper session presented at Congrès européen : L'Activité physique et la santé des tout-petits (28-29 mai 2010: Epinal, France).  

 

2009

L'éthique appliquée

Daled, P.-F. (2009). L'éthique appliquée: Définition et domaines d'application. Paper session presented at Ethique et enseignement supérieur (Haute Ecole libre de Bruxelles Ilya Prigogine).  

 

Modulation of the Stroop effect by means of non-hypnotic suggestion

Magalhaes De Saldanha D, P., Slama, H., & Cleeremans, A. (2009). Modulation of the Stroop effect by means of non-hypnotic suggestion. Paper session presented at Belgian Association for Psychological Sciences (Bruxelles).  

 

Information, technique et liberté

Daled, P.-F. (2009). Information, technique et liberté. Paper session presented at Les après-midi "Informatique et Société" de l'Ecole Supérieure d'Informatique (12 mars 2009: Haute Ecole de Bruxelles).  

 

L'ULB et le Libre Examen aujourd'hui

Daled, P.-F. (2009). L'ULB et le Libre Examen aujourd'hui. Paper session presented at Journée portes ouvertes de l'Université Libre de Bruxelles (Université Libre de Bruxelles).  

 

Consciousness and neuroscience

Cleeremans, A. (2009). Consciousness and neuroscience. Paper session presented at ESCAN kick-off meeting (December 10th: Amsterdam (The Netherlands)).  

 

Measuring consciousness

Cleeremans, A. (2009). Measuring consciousness. Paper session presented at Consciousness and its measures(COST Action BM0605) conference (December 1st: Limmasol, Cyprus).  

 

How we learn to be conscious

Cleeremans, A. (2009). How we learn to be conscious. Paper session presented at Neurowissenschaftliches Kolloquium Uniklinik Köln series (September 23rd: University of Cologne (Germany)).  

 

Dissociations between action awareness and awareness in simple reaction time and in pointing tasks

Cleeremans, A. (2009). Dissociations between action awareness and awareness in simple reaction time and in pointing tasks. Paper session presented at Workshop on Knowledge and Performance in the Perception of Objects and Living Beings, Center for Interdisciplinary Research (ZIF) (October 30th: Bielefeldt University (Germany)).  

 

Prise de decision et conscience

Cleeremans, A. (2009). Prise de decision et conscience: Vaut-il mieux faire confiance à l'inconscient ou réfléchir? Paper session presented at Classe des Lettres et des Sciences Morales et Politiques, Académie Royale des Sciences et des Arts de Belgique (Belgium) (October 5th: Belgique).  

 

Learning to be conscious

Cleeremans, A. (2009). Learning to be conscious. Paper session presented at The Brain Unravelled exhibition (September 10th: Slade Research Centre, University College London).  

 

The Radical Plasticity Thesis

Cleeremans, A. (2009). The Radical Plasticity Thesis. Paper session presented at L.E.C.A initiative (June 16th: Universität Leipzig (Germany)).  

 

Intuition, conscience, neurosciences & prise de décision

Cleeremans, A. (2009). Intuition, conscience, neurosciences & prise de décision. Paper session presented at Solvay Continued Education Program (June 12th: Brussels (Belgium)).  

 

Consciousness

Cleeremans, A. (2009). Consciousness. Paper session presented at 8th Pecha Kucha Night (May 14th: Claridge (Brussels)).  

 

Consciousness

Cleeremans, A. (2009). Consciousness. Paper session presented at CampusTalk initiative (March 25th: Vrije Universiteit Brussel).  

 

La conscience dans tous ses états

Cleeremans, A. (2009). La conscience dans tous ses états. Paper session presented at Day After" conference series (March 18th: Café des Fous (Paris, France)).  

 

Computational theories of consciousness

Cleeremans, A. (2009). Computational theories of consciousness: The radical plasticity thesis. Paper session presented at Cognito Group (January 6th: Universiteit van Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands).  

 

Du subliminal à l'hypnose

Cleeremans, A. (2009). Du subliminal à l'hypnose: Que peut-on vraiment faire sans conscience? Paper session presented at Séminaire de recherche en Philosophie des Sciences (March 11th: Université de Liège (Liège, Belgium)).  

 

Learning to be conscious

Cleeremans, A., Pasquali, A., & Timmermans, B. (2009). Learning to be conscious: A metacognitive model of awareness. Paper session presented at Eighth Annual Summer Interdisciplinary Conference (ASIC 2009) (July 22-27, 2009: Sarre, Italy).  

 

The role of pace and time in sequence learning

Chambaron, S., Ginhac, D., Pasquali, A., Destrebecqz, A., & Cleeremans, A. (2009). The role of pace and time in sequence learning: What is the impact of RSI variations on learning? Paper session presented at Eighth Annual Summer Interdisciplinary Conference (ASIC 2009) (July 22-27, 2009: Sarre, Italy).  

 

Subliminal behavioural priming

Doyen, S., Klein, O., & Cleeremans, A. (2009). Subliminal behavioural priming: It is all in the brain, but whose brain? Paper session presented at ESCON2 Conference (August 26-30: Warsaw (Poland)).  

 

Les enjeux éthiques en génétique

Missa, J.-N. (2009). Les enjeux éthiques en génétique. Paper session presented at Colloque « Génétique et périnatalité » (16 mai 2009: AMUB, Lessines).  

 

Histoire orale de la psychiatrie biologique

Missa, J.-N. (2009). Histoire orale de la psychiatrie biologique. Paper session presented at Cycle de conférences (22 janvier 2009: Clinique Psychiatrique Universitaire de Cery (Genève)).  

 

Présentation du Code d'Ethique de la Recherche Scientifique en Belgique 

Missa, J.-N. (2009). Présentation du Code d'Ethique de la Recherche Scientifique en Belgique . Paper session presented at Symposium « Strengthening Scientific Integrity : Towards a European Code of Conduct ? The role of the European National Academies (28-30 juin 2009: ll European Academies Standing Committee for Science and Ethics, Berne).  

 

La Folie, son intégration dans la cité et son évolution au fil du temp

Missa, J.-N. (2009). La Folie, son intégration dans la cité et son évolution au fil du temp. Paper session presented at Anniversaire (125e: 11 septembre 200: entre Psychiatrique de Lierneux, Centre Hospitalier spécialisé L'accueil).  

 

Recherches technoscientifiques sur l'être humain et éthique du futur

Missa, J.-N. (2009). Recherches technoscientifiques sur l'être humain et éthique du futur. Paper session presented at colloque « Présentation du Code d'éthique de la recherche scientifique en Belgique » (8 octobre 2009: Bruxelles, Palais des Académies).  

 

Définir la conscience

Missa, J.-N. (2009). Définir la conscience. Paper session presented at Conférence (21 octobre 2009: Collège Belgique).  

 

L'amélioration de l'être humain par de nouveaux dispositifs implantables et le respect de lintégrité du corps humain 

Missa, J.-N. (2009). L'amélioration de l'être humain par de nouveaux dispositifs implantables et le respect de lintégrité du corps humain . Paper session presented at Colloque « Des dispositifs médicaux implantables à l'homme reconstitué ! » (11 décembre 2009: 5ème Université de Bioéthique, France-Biotech et Eurobiomed, Nîmes).  

 

Ethique et déontologie

Daled, P.-F. (2009). Ethique et déontologie. Paper session presented at Copié-collé. Former à l'utilisation critique et responsable de l'information, Colloque du Pôle universitaire européen Bruxelles-Wallonie (31 mars 2009: Haute Ecole libre de Bruxelles Ilya Prigogine, Campus Erasme).  

 

2008

Secret et mensonge dans le monde médical du XIXe siècle

Daled, P.-F. (2008). Secret et mensonge dans le monde médical du XIXe siècle. Paper session presented at Séminaire Transdisciplinaire (PHIL-B 507) (27 novembre 2008: Université Libre de Bruxelles).  

 

Auguste Comte, le positivisme et la médecine

Daled, P.-F. (2008). Auguste Comte, le positivisme et la médecine. Paper session presented at Analyse critique des idéologies, Cycle des Grandes Conférences Philosophique du Collège royal des médecins (7: 27 octobre 2008: Centre culturel de Watermael-Boisfort).  

 

L'ULB et le Libre Examen aujourd'hui

Daled, P.-F. (2008). L'ULB et le Libre Examen aujourd'hui. Paper session presented at Journée portes ouvertes de l'Université Libre de Bruxelles (5 mars 2008: Université Libre de Bruxelles).  

 

What defines consciousness?

Cleeremans, A. (2008). What defines consciousness? Paper session presented at Belgian Brain Congress 2008 (October 24th: Oostende, Belgium).  

 

Conscious and unconscious processing

Cleeremans, A. (2008). Conscious and unconscious processing: A conceptual sketch. Paper session presented at colloquium, Fritz Strack group (July 9th: University of Wurzburg (Wurzburg Germany)).  

 

Mr. Spock's guide to Psychology

Cleeremans, A. (2008). Mr. Spock's guide to Psychology. Paper session presented at Psychology: Scenes of tomorrow", held in honor of Pr. José Morais (September 20th: Palace of the Royal Academies (Brussels, Belgium)).  

 

Consciousness and metarepresentation

Cleeremans, A. (2008). Consciousness and metarepresentation: A computational sketch. Paper session presented at CSCA symposium titled “Distributed Processing Models” (June 27th: Universiteit van Amsterdam, (Amsterdam, The Netherlands)).  

 

Consciousness

Cleeremans, A. (2008). Consciousness: The Radical Plasticity Thesis. Paper session presented at Koninklijke Vlaamse Akademie van Belgie (Belgium)'s lecture cycle dedicated to “Brain, Consciousness, and Soul” (May 6th).  

 

Consciousness takes time

Cleeremans, A. (2008). Consciousness takes time: Evidence from sequence learning, conditioning, and action studies. Paper session presented at VolkswagenStiftung Workshop titled “Consciousness and time” (Edinburgh, Scotland) (April 1st).  

 

Consciousness and Control

Cleeremans, A. (2008). Consciousness and Control. Paper session presented at Action Monitoring and Behavioural Adjustment” Graduate Student Workshop (March 15h: RWTHAachen University (Germany)).  

 

Comment apprendre sans conscience nous fait apprendre à être conscients

Cleeremans, A. (2008). Comment apprendre sans conscience nous fait apprendre à être conscients. Paper session presented at Archives Jean Piaget (March 11th: Université de Genève (Switzerland)).  

 

Dialogue entre les Profs. A. Bazan et A. Cleeremans sur l'interface entre neurosciences cognitives et psychanalyse

Bazan, A., & Cleeremans, A. (2008). Dialogue entre les Profs. A. Bazan et A. Cleeremans sur l'interface entre neurosciences cognitives et psychanalyse. Paper session presented at Séminaire «Interfaces» de la formation continue en Cliniques psychothérapeutiques ¬ orientation psychanalytique (19.02.2008: Ixelles).  

 

La psychiatrie biologique au 20e siècle

Missa, J.-N. (2008). La psychiatrie biologique au 20e siècle: Une discipline médicale en quête de scientificité. Paper session presented at Groupe de travail de la Chaire de philosophie des sciences biologiques et médicales (31 janvier 2008: Collège de France).  

 

De la découverte des médicaments psychotropes aux premières hypothèses sur les bases neurochimiques des maladies mentales

Missa, J.-N. (2008). De la découverte des médicaments psychotropes aux premières hypothèses sur les bases neurochimiques des maladies mentales. Paper session presented at Colloque Des neurosciences à la psychopathologie : action, langage, imaginaire (8 avril 2008: Centre des Neurosciences cognitives, Lyon, Bron).  

 

Traitements biologiques en psychiatrie

Missa, J.-N. (2008). Traitements biologiques en psychiatrie. Paper session presented at Séminaire sur l'histoire de la psychiatirie (21-23 septembre 2008: SOFOR, Bordeaux).  

 

L'empirisme thérapeutique de la psychiatrie biologique (1920-1960)

Missa, J.-N. (2008). L'empirisme thérapeutique de la psychiatrie biologique (1920-1960). Paper session presented at Colloque « Aspects scientifiques de l'histoire de la psychiatrie en Belgique » (13 décembre 2008: Société Royale de Médecine Mentale de Belgique, Seneffe).  

 

Paul Janssen et la synthèse de l'haloperidol

Missa, J.-N. (2008). Paul Janssen et la synthèse de l'haloperidol. Paper session presented at Colloque « La révolution scientifique de l'Haldol » (30 mai 2008: Université de Liège).  

 

2007

Libre pensée et libre examen

Daled, P.-F. (2007). Libre pensée et libre examen. Paper session presented at Conférence de rentrée du Cercle des étudiants en sciences politiques et sociales de l'Université libre de Bruxelles (10 octobre 2007: Université Libre de Bruxelles).  

 

Comment sommes-nous conscients?

Cleeremans, A. (2007). Comment sommes-nous conscients? Paper session presented at 10th Anniversary of the DANA Alliance for the Brain (April 24th: Université Libre de Bruxelles (Belgium)).  

 

Learning to be conscious

Cleeremans, A. (2007). Learning to be conscious: The Radical Plasticity Thesis. Paper session presented at 2nd Summer School on Consciousness (June 15th: Institut d'Etudes Scientifiques de Cargèse (Corsica, France)).  

 

Learning to be conscious

Cleeremans, A. (2007). Learning to be conscious. Paper session presented at Laboratoire d'étude des mécanismes cognitifs, CNRS (February 5t: Université de Lyon 2 (France)).  

 

The radical plasticity thesis

Cleeremans, A. (2007). The radical plasticity thesis. Paper session presented at Emotion, Cognition, and Communication (December 20th: Instituto de Filosofia de Langagem Univesidade Nova de Lisboa (Lisbon, Portugal)).  

 

Conscience et apprentissage

Cleeremans, A. (2007). Conscience et apprentissage. Paper session presented at symposium celebrating the careeer of Jean-Paul Haton (25th October: Saint-Dié des Vosges, France).  

 

Learning and consciousness

Cleeremans, A. (2007). Learning and consciousness. Paper session presented at NWO Autumn School on “Learning and Social Cognition” (14th October 2007: Arnhem, The Netherlands).  

 

Learning to be conscious

Cleeremans, A. (2007). Learning to be conscious. Paper session presented at Functions of Consciousness (July 19th: Berlin, Germany).  

 

Learning and consciousness

Cleeremans, A. (2007). Learning and consciousness. Paper session presented at Laboratoire Langage, Mémoire et Développement Cognitif, CNRS (January 11th: Université de Poitiers (France)).  

 

Time, action, and consciousness

Cleeremans, A., Sarrazin, J.-C., & Haggard, P. (2007). Time, action, and consciousness. Paper session presented at Sixth Annual Summer Interdisciplinary Conference (June 26th-July 1st: Kalymnos (Greece)).  

 

Learning to be conscious

Cleeremans, A. (2007). Learning to be conscious. Paper session presented at Laboratoire d'étude des mécanismes cognitifs, CNRS (February 5th: Université de Lyon 2 (France)).  

 

Timing and aging in sequence learning

Destrebecqz, A., Vandenberghe, M., Fery, P., & Cleeremans, A. (2007). Timing and aging in sequence learning. Paper session presented at 15th ESCOP Conference (Août 2007: Marseille (France)).  

 

La psychiatrie biologique 

Missa, J.-N. (2007). La psychiatrie biologique : histoire d'une discipline empirique. Paper session presented at Séminaire de recherche : histoire de la médecine et des savoirs scientifiques sur le corps (11 décembre 2007: Centre Alexandre Koyré, Histoire des sciences et des techniques, Université Paris 1, EHSS).  

 

Modifier la nature humaine ?

Missa, J.-N. (2007). Modifier la nature humaine ?: Implications philosophiques des avancées biotechnologiques. Paper session presented at Conférence (25 septembre 2007: Université de Genève).  

 

2006

Avons-nous besoin de dieu(x) ?

Daled, P.-F. (2006). Avons-nous besoin de dieu(x) ? Paper session presented at Avons-nous besoin de dieu(x) ? (15-02-2006: Université Libre de Bruxelles).  

 

The dynamics of consciousness: Temporal factors shape interactions between conscious and unconscious information processing

Cleeremans, A. (2006). The dynamics of consciousness: Temporal factors shape interactions between conscious and unconscious information processing. Paper session presented at Models of Brain & Mind: Physical, Computational, and Psychological Approaches (November 21st-28th: Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Calcutta (India)).  

 

Learning and consciousness

Cleeremans, A. (2006). Learning and consciousness. Paper session presented at Whitehead Seminar Series (October 18th: Goldsmith College, London (U.K.)).  

 

Imaging Consciousness

Cleeremans, A. (2006). Imaging Consciousness: Space and Time in the Brain. Paper session presented at XXth Brijuni Conference (August 26th: Brioni Island (Croatia)).  

 

Consciousness takes time

Cleeremans, A. (2006). Consciousness takes time. Paper session presented at 2nd Workshop on Cognitive and Social Perspectives on (Un)consciousness (July 10th: Kazimierz Dolny (Poland)).  

 

Being Virtual

Cleeremans, A. (2006). Being Virtual: A graded, adaptive perspective on consciousness and self. Paper session presented at 4th Multidisciplinary Syposium by the NWO Cognition Programme (June 28th: Utrecht, The Netherlands).  

 

Learning and consciousness

Cleeremans, A. (2006). Learning and consciousness. Paper session presented at Sixth Congress of Spanish Society for Experimental Psychology (July 6th: University of Santiago (Santiago de Compostela, Spain)).  

 

A la recherche des corrélats neuraux de la conscience

Cleeremans, A. (2006). A la recherche des corrélats neuraux de la conscience: Comment réconcilier données objectives et subjectives. Paper session presented at Ilya Prigogine — Penser la Science (March 2nd: Université Libre de Bruxelles (Brussels, Belgium)).  

 

Corrélats neuraux des apprentissages avec et sans conscience

Cleeremans, A. (2006). Corrélats neuraux des apprentissages avec et sans conscience. Paper session presented at Assemblée Générale du Centre de Recherche en Neurosciences (May 16th: Université Catholique de Louvain (Brussels, Belgium)).  

 

Les corrélats neuraux de la conscience

Cleeremans, A. (2006). Les corrélats neuraux de la conscience. Paper session presented at Service de Psychiatrie, Hôpital Erasme (February 17th: Brussels, Belgium).  

 

Comment apprendre sans conscience nous fait apprendre à être conscient

Cleeremans, A. (2006). Comment apprendre sans conscience nous fait apprendre à être conscient. Paper session presented at Séminaire (February 3rd: Institut Jean Nicod (Paris, France)).  

 

Consciousness as a tipping point

Cleeremans, A. (2006). Consciousness as a tipping point. Paper session presented at Mars Inc. Catalyst-MDRU Meeting (February 15th: McLean, USA).  

 

Conscious experience as the brain's unconscious understanding of itself

Cleeremans, A. (2006). Conscious experience as the brain's unconscious understanding of itself. Paper session presented at The Self and the soul in science and society (November 27th: House of Lords, London (U.K.)).  

 

Naissance de la psychopharmacologie en Europe et aux Etats-Unis (1950-1960)

Missa, J.-N. (2006). Naissance de la psychopharmacologie en Europe et aux Etats-Unis (1950-1960). Paper session presented at Colloque "L'essor des neurosciences. De la physiologie à la cognition: 1945-1975" (21 au 23 septembre 2006: Collège de France et Ecole normale Supérieure).  

 

Neuroéthique et technologies d'amélioration du cerveau humain

Missa, J.-N. (2006). Neuroéthique et technologies d'amélioration du cerveau humain: perspectives éthiques et philosophiques. Paper session presented at Colloque "Quoi de neuf sous le crâne? Colloque sur les implications philosophiques, éthiques et juridiques des neurosciences" (13-14 mars 2006: Université de Lausanne-Université de Genève).  

 

2005

Le libre examen et ses enjeux contemporains

Daled, P.-F. (2005). Le libre examen et ses enjeux contemporains. Paper session presented at Journée de formation à l'attention du Centre d'action laïque (3 octobre 2005: Université Libre de Bruxelles).  

 

Implicit change detection

Laloyaux, C., Destrebecqz, A., & Cleeremans, A. (2005). Implicit change detection: the fat lady hasn't sung yet. Paper session presented at European Conference on Visual Perception (ECVP) (27: 22-26 August 2005: Coruña, Spain).  

 

Change blindness and implicit change detection

Laloyaux, C., & Cleeremans, A. (2005). Change blindness and implicit change detection: new evidence. Paper session presented at Meeting of the Association for the Scientific Study of Consciousness (9: 24-27 June 2005: Passadena, California, USA).  

 

Implicit change detection

Laloyaux, C., Destrebecqz, A., & Cleeremans, A. (2005). Implicit change detection: the fat lady hasn't sung yet. Paper session presented at Annual Conference of The Belgian Psychology Society (57: 27 May 2005: Gent, Belgium).  

 

Implicit change detection

Laloyaux, C., & Cleeremans, A. (2005). Implicit change detection: the fat lady hasn't sung yet. Paper session presented at Annual meeting of the Vision Science Society (5: 6-11 May 2005: Sarasota, Florida, USA).  

 

Le libre examen

Daled, P.-F. (2005). Le libre examen. Paper session presented at séance d'information à l'attention de la communauté universitaire (24 mars 2005: Université libre de Bruxelles).  

 

No role of motor responses in sequence learning tasks?

Vandenberghe, M., Michiels, S., Fery, P., & Cleeremans, A. (2005). No role of motor responses in sequence learning tasks? Paper session presented at Annual Meeting of the Belgian Association for Psychological Sciences (27 may 2005: Ghent, Belgium).  

 

Implicit change detection

Laloyaux, C., Destrebecqz, A., & Cleeremans, A. (2005). Implicit change detection: the fat lady hasn't sung yet. Paper session presented at Conference of the European Society for Cognitive psychology (ESCoP) (14: 30 August-3 September 2005: Leiden, The Netherlands).  

 

Consciousness, control and ageing

Gaillard, V., Vandenberghe, M., Destrebecqz, A., & Cleeremans, A. (2005). Consciousness, control and ageing: a graded relationship ? Paper session presented at 2005 ESCoP meeting (2005: Leiden, The Netherlands).  

 

Deterministic and probabilistic sequence learning

Vandenberghe, M., Schmidt, N., Fery, P., & Cleeremans, A. (2005). Deterministic and probabilistic sequence learning: new evidence from amnesic patients. Paper session presented at Workshop on social and cognitive perspectives on (un)consciousness (11-13 February 2005: Kazimierz Dolny, Poland).  

 

Cognitive control and consciousness in the face of age

Gaillard, V., Destrebecqz, A., & Cleeremans, A. (2005). Cognitive control and consciousness in the face of age. Paper session presented at 1st workshop on cognitive and social perspectives on (un)consciousness, method of modeling in psychology (11-13 February 2005: Kazimierz Dolny, Poland).  

 

Processing non-adjacent contingencies

Destrebecqz, A., Onnis, L., Christiansen, M., Chater, N., & Cleeremans, A. (2005). Processing non-adjacent contingencies: A graded, associative account. Paper session presented at 1st Workshop on Social and Cognitive Perspectives on (Un)consciousness (Kazimierz Dolny (Poland)).  

 

A dual connectionist model of meta-representation

Theofilou, D., & Cleeremans, A. (2005). A dual connectionist model of meta-representation. Paper session presented at 1st Workshop on Social and Cognitive Perspectives on (Un)consciousness (Kazimierz Dolny (Poland)).  

 

Consciousness as a continuum

Cleeremans, A. (2005). Consciousness as a continuum: Computational and neural correlates of the implicit-explicit distinction. Paper session presented at Invited colloquium (October 26th: Psychology Department, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität (Munich, Germany)).  

 

Principes généraux d'une théorie de la conscience

Cleeremans, A. (2005). Principes généraux d'une théorie de la conscience. Paper session presented at Conscience, Mémoire et Attention (June 6th-18th: summer school, Cargèse (Corsica, France)).  

 

Introductory lecture

Cleeremans, A. (2005). Introductory lecture. Paper session presented at Conscience, Mémoire et Attention (June 6th-18th: summer school, Cargèse (Corscia, France)).  

 

Consciousness as global constraint satisfaction

Cleeremans, A. (2005). Consciousness as global constraint satisfaction: From control to automaticity. Paper session presented at European Workshop on Mouvement Science (June 2nd-4th: Vienna (Austria)).  

 

Being Virtual : A graded, dynamic perspective on the relationships between conscious and unconscious cognition

Cleeremans, A. (2005). Being Virtual : A graded, dynamic perspective on the relationships between conscious and unconscious cognition. Paper session presented at 1st workshop on cognitive and social perpectives on (un)consciousness (February 11th: Kazimierz Dolny (Poland)).  

 

Entre mémoire et action

Cleeremans, A. (2005). Entre mémoire et action: A la recherché des bases cérébrales de la conscience. Paper session presented at festival “Science et Cité” (May 21st: Geneva (Switerland)).  

 

Objects between disciplines

Missa, J.-N. (2005). Objects between disciplines. Paper session presented at Disciplinary Orders: objects, methods, problems (13 mai 2005: University of Chicago center in Paris).  

 

Fonction de la narration dans les rapports entre bioéthique et philosophie

Daled, P.-F. (2005). Fonction de la narration dans les rapports entre bioéthique et philosophie. Paper session presented at éminaire international organisé par le Centre de recherches interdisciplinaires en bioéthique et le Groupe de contact FNRS « philosophie et bioéthique » (10 mars 2005: Bruxelles, Université Libre de Bruxelles).  

 

2004

La découverte des premiers neuroleptiques en France et en Belgique

Missa, J.-N. (2004). La découverte des premiers neuroleptiques en France et en Belgique. Paper session presented at colloque du groupe de recherches sur l'histoire des neurosciences en France dans le contexte international de 1945 à 1975 (13-14 mai 2004: ENS Ulm, Paris; Lourmarin (Vaucluse)).  

 

Combien de neurones faut-il pour penser ?

Missa, J.-N. (2004). Combien de neurones faut-il pour penser ? Paper session presented at Séminaire-table ronde sur le thème organisé par le Forum Diderot (4 mai 2004: l'Université Paris VII).  

 

Conscience et objectivité

Missa, J.-N. (2004). Conscience et objectivité. Paper session presented at séminaire de recherches sur la philosophie des neurosciences (18 mars 2004: ENS,Lyon).  

 

Vieillissement cognitif normal et relation entre conscience et contrôle

Gaillard, V., Destrebecqz, A., & Cleeremans, A. (2004). Vieillissement cognitif normal et relation entre conscience et contrôle. Paper session presented at Journée des doctorants (2004: Faculté des sciences psychologiques et de l'éducation, Université Libre de Bruxelles).  

 

Ageing and the relationship between consciousness and control

Gaillard, V., Destrebecqz, A., & Cleeremans, A. (2004). Ageing and the relationship between consciousness and control. Paper session presented at Meeting of Belgian psychological society (56: 2004).  

 

Ageing and the relationship between consciousness and control

Gaillard, V., Destrebecqz, A., & Cleeremans, A. (2004). Ageing and the relationship between consciousness and control. Paper session presented at International workshop neuroscience of cognitive ageing (13-15 October 2004: Palma de Mallorca, Spain).  

 

Ageing and the relationship between consciousness and control

Gaillard, V., Destrebecqz, A., & Cleeremans, A. (2004). Ageing and the relationship between consciousness and control. Paper session presented at 8th meeting of the association for the scientific study of consciousness (25-28 June 2004: Antwerp, Belgium).  

 

Automatic priming and conscious expectancy in a simple reaction time task

Destrebecqz, A., Perruchet, P., & Cleeremans, A. (2004). Automatic priming and conscious expectancy in a simple reaction time task. Paper session presented at International congress of psychology (28: 2004).  

 

Behavioral, imaging and modelling studies of implicit sequence learning

Destrebecqz, A., & Cleeremans, A. (2004). Behavioral, imaging and modelling studies of implicit sequence learning. Paper session presented at 'Toward a science of consciousness' conference (6: 2004).  

 

Automatic priming and conscious expectancy in a simple reaction time task

Destrebecqz, A., Cleeremans, A., Perruchet, P., Peigneux, P., Laureys, S., & Maquet, P. (2004). Automatic priming and conscious expectancy in a simple reaction time task. Paper session presented at Annual conference of the association for the scientific study of consciousness (ASSC8) (8: 24-28 June 2004: University of Antwerp, Belgium).  

 

Ce qui fait que nous sommes humains

Cleeremans, A. (2004). Ce qui fait que nous sommes humains: A la recherche des corrélats neuraux de la conscience. Paper session presented at Invited presentation for Altaïr (December 11t: Université Libre de Bruxelles (Belgium)).  

 

Comment devenir un zombie intelligent

Cleeremans, A. (2004). Comment devenir un zombie intelligent: Une perspective gradualiste sur les rapports entre cognition avec et sans conscience. Paper session presented at LEAD (December 2: Université de Bourgogne (France)).  

 

Being Virtual

Cleeremans, A. (2004). Being Virtual: How we learn to be conscious. Paper session presented at Institute for Cognitive Neuroscience (November 15: University College of London (U.K.)).  

 

The subtlety of gradedness

Cleeremans, A. (2004). The subtlety of gradedness: Connectionist models of implicit learning. Paper session presented at Social Connectionism (June 16 — 19: Genval (Belgium)).  

 

Conscious and unconscious learning

Cleeremans, A. (2004). Conscious and unconscious learning: A computational perspective. Paper session presented at XXVIII International Congress of Psychology (August 8 — 13: Beijing (China)).  

 

Learning and Consciousness

Cleeremans, A. (2004). Learning and Consciousness: A graded, dynamic perspective. Paper session presented at Invited colloquium at the Unité de Neuroimagerie cognitive, Service Hospitalier Frédéric Joliot (June 11: Orsay (France)).  

 

Conscience et contrôle

Cleeremans, A. (2004). Conscience et contrôle: Une perspective dynamique. Paper session presented at Invited seminar at the Institut de Psychologie (March 29: Université Paris 5 (France)).  

 

Consciousness

Cleeremans, A. (2004). Consciousness. Paper session presented at Revealing connections: Insights from connectionist models for the dynamics of human learning” organized at the 16th Annual Convention of the American Psychological Society (May 27-30: Chicago (USA)).  

 

Conscience et apprentissage

Cleeremans, A. (2004). Conscience et apprentissage: Une perspective gradualiste. Paper session presented at Séminaires de neurosciences cliniques (March 22nd: Hôpital Erasme, Université Libre de Bruxelles (Belgium)).  

 

2003

Des traitements biologiques en psychiatrie à l'étiologie des maladies mentales

Missa, J.-N. (2003). Des traitements biologiques en psychiatrie à l'étiologie des maladies mentales. Paper session presented at Colloque Normes et fonctions (10-11 octobre 2003: Jean moulin, Lyon 3).  

 

La conscience de soi

Missa, J.-N. (2003). La conscience de soi: une approche synthétique. Paper session presented at International symposium on the self: scientific, religious and cultural aspects (September 17 and 18, 2003: Université de Montréal).  

 

Le savoir bioéthique

Missa, J.-N. (2003). Le savoir bioéthique: Un levier pour mieux décider. Paper session presented at Colloque International de bioéthique (8 mai 2003: Université de Montréal).  

 

What can we expect from a neuroscientific theory of consciousness?

Missa, J.-N. (2003). What can we expect from a neuroscientific theory of consciousness? Paper session presented at Second Colloquium Neuroscience & Philosophy : From Neurotranmitters to Consciousness (May, 9 2003: UQAM, Montreal).  

 

Bioethics and global health care

Missa, J.-N. (2003). Bioethics and global health care. Paper session presented at Fulbright Visiting Scholar Conference “International Cooperation in a Borderless World: Exploring the US Role in Global Health Governance” (April 2-5, 2003: Washington, DC).  

 

Philosophy of Consciousness

Missa, J.-N. (2003). Philosophy of Consciousness: An introduction. Paper session presented at International Week of the Brain (March 14, 2003: Swiss Society of Neuroscience, Geneva).  

 

Consciousness

Missa, J.-N. (2003). Consciousness: A New Theoretical Framework. Paper session presented at Symposium Consciousness and Unconsciousness: A multidisciplinary perspective (March, 15 2003: University of Geneva).  

 

Learning-induced changes in regional cerebral activity and connectivity during REM sleep

Destrebecqz, A., Laureys, S., Peigneux, P., Fuchs, S., Colette, F., Aerts, J., Del Fiore, G., Degueldre, C., Cleeremans, A., Luxen, A., & Maquet, P. (2003). Learning-induced changes in regional cerebral activity and connectivity during REM sleep. Paper session presented at Congress of the European federation of Neurological societies (FENS) (7: September 2003: Helsinki, Finland).  

 

Learning to be conscious

Cleeremans, A. (2003). Learning to be conscious. Paper session presented at Invited Departmental Colloquium (December 11: Department of Psychology, University of Sussex (U.K.)).  

 

Conscience et contrôle

Cleeremans, A. (2003). Conscience et contrôle: Une perspective dynamique. Paper session presented at Invited Departmental Seminar, Departement des Sciences du Mouvement Humain (October 23: Université de la Méditerrannée—Aix-Marseille II).  

 

The search for the computational correlates of consciousness

Cleeremans, A. (2003). The search for the computational correlates of consciousness. Paper session presented at 11th meeting of the European Society for Philosophy and Psychology (July 9th-12th: Turin (Italy)).  

 

The search for the computational correlates of consciousness

Cleeremans, A. (2003). The search for the computational correlates of consciousness. Paper session presented at ESF/PESC Exploratory Workshop titled : Models of Consciousness (September 1-3: Birmingham (U.K.)).  

 

Attention and implicit learning

Destrebecqz, A., & Cleeremans, A. (2003). Attention and implicit learning. Paper session presented at Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Belgian Psychological Society.  

 

The search for the computational correlates of consciousness

Cleeremans, A. (2003). The search for the computational correlates of consciousness. Paper session presented at 7th meeting of the Association for the Scientific Study of Consciousness (May 31: Memphis (U.S.A)).  

 

Conciousness and cognitive control

Cleeremans, A. (2003). Conciousness and cognitive control: A graded, dynamic perspective. Paper session presented at Invited presentation at the Department of Psychology (May 6: University of Granada (Spain)).  

 

2002

Herbert Feigl et l'inaccessibilité de l'esprit

Missa, J.-N. (2002). Herbert Feigl et l'inaccessibilité de l'esprit. Paper session presented at Colloque Herbert feigl:The mental and the physical (Avril 2002: Université de nancy).  

 

Contextual Cueing of Visuo-Spatial Attention

Reuter, R., & Cleeremans, A. (2002). Contextual Cueing of Visuo-Spatial Attention: Direct and Indirect Measures of Learning. Paper session presented at 6th Annual Conference of the Association for the Scientific Study of Consciousness (May 31 — June 3: Barcelona (Spain)).  

 

Contrasting Explicit and Implicit Knowledge in Contextual Cueing of Visuo-Spatial Attention

Reuter, R., & Cleeremans, A. (2002). Contrasting Explicit and Implicit Knowledge in Contextual Cueing of Visuo-Spatial Attention. Paper session presented at Proceedings of the Experimental Psychology Conference: A joint meeting of the EPS and the BVP/SBP (April 9 — 11: Leuven (Belgium)).  

 

Information-dependent cerebral reactivations during post-training REM sleep

Peigneux, P., Laureys, S., Fuchs, S., Collette, F., Delbeuck, X., Degueldre, C., Del Fiore, G., Aerts, J.-P., Luxen, A., Cleeremans, A., & Maquet, P. (2002). Information-dependent cerebral reactivations during post-training REM sleep. Paper session presented at Human Brain Mapping Conference.  

 

Learning to be conscious

Cleeremans, A. (2002). Learning to be conscious. Paper session presented at Consciousness Club seminar series (October 3: Functional Imaging Laboratory (U.K.)).  

 

Learning and Consciousness

Cleeremans, A. (2002). Learning and Consciousness: A graded, dynamic perspective. Paper session presented at Invited colloquium presented to the Department of Psychology (April 5: University of Arizona (U.S.A.)).  

 

Implicit learning

Cleeremans, A. (2002). Implicit learning: How unconscious? How abstract? Paper session presented at Invited colloquium presented to the Institute of Cognitive Science (March 8: University of Colorado at Boulder (U.S.A.)).  

 

A graded, dynamic perspective on consciousness

Cleeremans, A. (2002). A graded, dynamic perspective on consciousness: Reconciling symbolic and subsymbolic approaches to cognition. Paper session presented at Seminar presented to the Centre de Recherches en Epistémologie Appliquée (February 12: (CREA, Ecole Polytechnique), Paris (France)).  

 

2001

Ethique et ADN recombinant

Missa, J.-N. (2001). Ethique et ADN recombinant. Paper session presented at Colloque Hare et la philosophie morale (6-7 décembre 2001: Grenoble).  

 

Auguste Comte et l'histoire des neurosciences

Missa, J.-N. (2001). Auguste Comte et l'histoire des neurosciences. Paper session presented at Colloque : La pensée d'Auguste Comte (4-9 juillet 2001: Cerisy).  

 

Evolution des théories associationnistes sur la mémoire de T. Ribot à J. Fuster

Missa, J.-N. (2001). Evolution des théories associationnistes sur la mémoire de T. Ribot à J. Fuster. Paper session presented at Colloque Histoire de la mémoire (18 et 19 octobre 2001: Université de Picardie Jules Verne).  

 

Jean-Jacques Rousseau et le niveau des sciences biologiques et médicales au XVIIIe siècle

Missa, J.-N. (2001). Jean-Jacques Rousseau et le niveau des sciences biologiques et médicales au XVIIIe siècle. Paper session presented at Colloque International : Les pathologies de J.J. Rousseau (28 avril 2001: Mons).  

 

Identifying the cerebral correlates of consciousness in sequence learning

Peigneux, P., Destrebecqz, A., Laureys, S., Degueldre, C., Del Fiore, G., Aerts, J.-P., Luxen, A., Van der Linden, M., Maquet, P., & Cleeremans, A. (2001). Identifying the cerebral correlates of consciousness in sequence learning. Paper session presented at 31st Society for Neuroscience Meeting (November 10 — 15: San Diego (USA)).  

 

Learning and Consciousness

Cleeremans, A. (2001). Learning and Consciousness: A graded, dynamic perspective. Paper session presented at Departmental Colloquium presented in the Distinguished Speaker in Development series, Department of Psychology (November 10: Cornell University (U.S.A.)).  

 

Learning and Consciousness

Cleeremans, A. (2001). Learning and Consciousness: A graded, dynamic perspective. Paper session presented at Departmental “Cognitive Lunch” presented to the Department of Psychology (December 10: University of Colorado at Boulder (U.S.A.)).  

 

Rules vs. Statistics

Cleeremans, A. (2001). Rules vs. Statistics: The other hard problem. Paper session presented at Graduate Seminar presented in the Department of Psychology (November 9: Cornell University (U.S.A.)).  

 

Learning and Consciousness

Cleeremans, A. (2001). Learning and Consciousness: A graded, dynamic perspective. Paper session presented at CCN Lab Seminar Series, Psychology Department (September 28: University of Colorado at Boulder (U.S.A.)).  

 

Behavioral, Neural, and Computational Correlates of Implicit and Explicit Learning

Cleeremans, A. (2001). Behavioral, Neural, and Computational Correlates of Implicit and Explicit Learning. Paper session presented at Interactions between implicit and explicit learning” (Organizers: Ron Sun & Robert C. Mathews), held during the Twenty-Third Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society (August 1 — 4: Edinburgh (Scotland)).  

 

Learning and consciousness

Cleeremans, A. (2001). Learning and consciousness: A graded, dynamic perspective. Paper session presented at VSPA Conference on Consciousness (June 1: Amsterdam, The Netherlands).  

 

Il y a-t-il une unité de la conscience?

Cleeremans, A. (2001). Il y a-t-il une unité de la conscience? Paper session presented at Bruxelles 2001 - Quelle unité de la connaissance? (June 12 — 15: Hulpe (Belgium)).  

 

Being Virtual

Cleeremans, A. (2001). Being Virtual: Consciousness and self as graded, dynamic phenomena. Paper session presented at Can a machine be conscious? (May 13 — 16: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Long Island, USA).  

 

L'unité de la conscience

Cleeremans, A. (2001). L'unité de la conscience. Paper session presented at Journée thématique sur la Correspondance des Sens: Synesthésie, physique et neuropsychologie (April 5: Fondation Nicolas-Claude Fabri de Peiresc, Brussels, Belgium).  

 

Learning and consciousness

Cleeremans, A. (2001). Learning and consciousness: A graded, dynamical perspective. Paper session presented at AISB-01 convention symposium "Nonconscious intelligence: From Natural to artificial" (March 21 — 24: University of York (UK)).  

 

Action and consciousness

Cleeremans, A. (2001). Action and consciousness: A graded, dynamical perspective. Paper session presented at SportMotorik 2001: Bewusstsein, Bewegung, Lernen conference held at the Justus (January 25 — 27: Liebig Universität Giessen (Germany)).  

 

2000

In quest of an efficient treatment in psychiatry

Missa, J.-N. (2000). In quest of an efficient treatment in psychiatry. Paper session presented at 37th International Congress on the History of Medicine (September 10-15, 2000: Galveston, Texas, USA).  

 

Matérialisme philosophique et matérialisme médical au XIXe siècle

Daled, P.-F. (2000). Matérialisme philosophique et matérialisme médical au XIXe siècle. Paper session presented at Colloque de la Société belge de philosophie et de la Société belge d'histoire de la médecine (19/02/2000: Musée de la Médecine, Hôpital Erasme, Université Libre de Bruxelles).  

 

Neural correlates of explicit sequence knowledge

Destrebecqz, A., Peigneux, P., Maquet, P., Degueldre, C., Luxen, A., Van der Linden, M., & Cleeremans, A. (2000). Neural correlates of explicit sequence knowledge: A novel application of the process dissociation procedure. Paper session presented at Meeting of the Association for the scientific study of consciousness (4: 2000).  

 

Learning and consciousness

Cleeremans, A. (2000). Learning and consciousness: A graded, dynamical perspective. Paper session presented at Invited seminar presented at the Laboratoire de Psychologie Cognitive (December 15: Université de Provence à Aix (France)).  

 

Learning and consciousness

Cleeremans, A. (2000). Learning and consciousness: A graded, dynamical perspective. Paper session presented at Invited colloquium presented for the Unit of Experimental and Theoretical Psychology (October 4: Universiteit Leiden (Netherlands)).  

 

Learning and consciousness

Cleeremans, A. (2000). Learning and consciousness: A graded, dynamical perspective. Paper session presented at Würzburg Summer School on Learning: The Acquisition of Behavioral Competence (September 22 — 27: Wü rzburg).  

 

Consciousness and knowledge representation in sequence learning

Cleeremans, A. (2000). Consciousness and knowledge representation in sequence learning. Paper session presented at departmental seminar presented at the Department of Psychology (February 29: University College London (U.K.)).  

 

Learning and consciousness

Cleeremans, A. (2000). Learning and consciousness: A graded, dynamical perspective. Paper session presented at third international conference on cognitive modeling (ICCM-2000) (March 25: Groningen (The Netherlands)).  

 

Sensitivity to abstract sequence structure

Cleeremans, A. (2000). Sensitivity to abstract sequence structure: Learning without knowing, or knowing without learning? Paper session presented at Cognitive Science Seminar series, Department of Psychology (March 1: Birkbeck College (U.K.)).  

 

Learning and consciousness

Cleeremans, A. (2000). Learning and consciousness. Paper session presented at IRIDIA "Sciences sans frontières" seminar series (February 25: Université Libre de Bruxelles (Belgium)).  

 

1999

Le pacifisme est-il une valeur universelle ?

Daled, P.-F. (1999). Le pacifisme est-il une valeur universelle ? Paper session presented at Colloque international"Le pacifisme est-il une valeur universelle ?" (25-26/11/1999: Mundaneum, Mons).  

 

L'innovation

Missa, J.-N. (1999). L'innovation: enjeux et risques acceptables. Paper session presented at Colloque Technologie et citoyenneté (20 octobre 1999: Paris, Sorbonne).  

 

Evolution des thérapies biologiques en psychiatrie dans un institut bruxellois entre 1917 et 1960

Missa, J.-N. (1999). Evolution des thérapies biologiques en psychiatrie dans un institut bruxellois entre 1917 et 1960: étude qualitative préliminaire. Paper session presented at Neurosciences and Psychiatry Congress of History (16 septembre 1999: Zurich).  

 

Dissociating conscious and unconscious influences in sequence learning

Destrebecqz, A., & Cleeremans, A. (1999). Dissociating conscious and unconscious influences in sequence learning. Paper session presented at Meeting of the Belgian psychological society (52: 1999).  

 

Dissociating conscious and unconscious influences in sequence learning

Destrebecqz, A., & Cleeremans, A. (1999). Dissociating conscious and unconscious influences in sequence learning. Paper session presented at Conference of the European society for cognitive psychology (11: 1999).  

 

Dissociating conscious and unconscious influences in sequence learning

Destrebecqz, A., & Cleeremans, A. (1999). Dissociating conscious and unconscious influences in sequence learning. Paper session presented at Meeting of the Association for the scientific study of consciousness (3: 1999).  

 

Processing abstract structure

Cleeremans, A., & Boyer, M. (1999). Processing abstract structure: Learning without knowing, or knowing without learning? Paper session presented at XIth ESCOP conference (September 1 — 4: Ghent (Belgium)).  

 

Apprendre un langage avec vos doigts

Cleeremans, A. (1999). Apprendre un langage avec vos doigts: Modèles connexionistes des l'apprentissage de séquences. Paper session presented at Séminaire sur les applications et les implications de l'informatique series, Department of Psychology (March 26: Université Libre de Bruxelles (Belgium)).  

 

Learning language with your fingers

Cleeremans, A. (1999). Learning language with your fingers: Connectionist models of sequence processing. Paper session presented at AI Lab (March 19.: Vrije Universiteit Brussels (Belgium)).  

 

Consciousness and knowledge representation in sequence learning

Cleeremans, A. (1999). Consciousness and knowledge representation in sequence learning. Paper session presented at Invited colloquium presented at the Department of Psychology (November 8: Humboldt University of Berlin).  

 

Consciousness and knowledge representation in sequence learning

Cleeremans, A. (1999). Consciousness and knowledge representation in sequence learning. Paper session presented at Invited seminar presented at the Department of Psychology (September 7: University of York (U.K.)).  

 

1998

Conscience et évolution

Missa, J.-N. (1998). Conscience et évolution. Paper session presented at Conférence d'Institut des Sciences Cognitives (7 mai 1998: Lyon).  

 

Emergence du concept d'image dans les sciences neurologiques au XIXe siècle et étude de l'évolution de ce concept dans les neurosciences contemporaines

Missa, J.-N. (1998). Emergence du concept d'image dans les sciences neurologiques au XIXe siècle et étude de l'évolution de ce concept dans les neurosciences contemporaines. Paper session presented at 2e colloque de neurophilosophie: "Le cerveau et les images" (28 et 29 mai 1998: Faculté de Médecine, Université de Lille).  

 

Aux limites de la vie

Missa, J.-N. (1998). Aux limites de la vie: réflexions éthiques. Paper session presented at Journée d'Etude Ethique et hôpital public (26 avril 1998: Hôpital Brugmann, Bruxelles).  

 

Ethique, science et société

Missa, J.-N. (1998). Ethique, science et société: Les langages de l'éthique. Paper session presented at Quatrième colloque belgo-québécois (jeudi 30 avril 1998: Université de Mons-hainaut).  

 

El krausismo a finales de los siglos XIX y XX (1898-1998)

Daled, P.-F. (1998). El krausismo a finales de los siglos XIX y XX (1898-1998). Paper session presented at Conférences de la chaire Carlos V (11-12 mars 1998: Institut Cervantes, Bruxelles).  

 

Using the process dissociation procedure to measure implicit and explicit processes in a sequence learning task

Destrebecqz, A., & Cleeremans, A. (1998). Using the process dissociation procedure to measure implicit and explicit processes in a sequence learning task. Paper session presented at Meeting of the Association for the scientific study of consciousness (2: 1998).  

 

Processing of contextual information during an implicit probabilistic sequence task

Peigneux, P., Maquet, P., Van der Linden, M., Meulemans, T., Degueldre, C., Delfiore, G., Luxen, A., Cleeremans, A., & Franck, G. (1998). Processing of contextual information during an implicit probabilistic sequence task: left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex involvement. Paper session presented at 4th International Conference on Functional Mapping of the Human Brain. Montréal (Canada). June 7 — 12. NeuroImage, 9(Suppl), 883.  

 

Implicit cognition

Cleeremans, A. (1998). Implicit cognition: Damned if you do, damned if you don't. Paper session presented at The role of implicit memory and implicit learning in representing the world (March 28: Université de Liège (Belgium)).  

 

Is sequence learning (a) implicit? (b) automatic? (c) abstract? (d) none of the above?

Cleeremans, A. (1998). Is sequence learning (a) implicit? (b) automatic? (c) abstract? (d) none of the above? Paper session presented at Invited seminar presented at the Department of Psychology (February 20: University of Wales, Bangor (U.K.)).  

 

Sequence learning

Cleeremans, A. (1998). Sequence learning: An overview. Paper session presented at Ulg IUAP workshop (January 9: Liège (Belgium)).  

 

Bioéthique, développement durable et principe de précaution

Missa, J.-N. (1998). Bioéthique, développement durable et principe de précaution. Paper session presented at Réalisations d'interfaces entre industriels et utilisateurs à propos des nouvelles responsabilités liées aux nouvelles technologies pour la santé (9 et 10 janvier 1998: Sénat, Paris).  

 

1997

Le statut philosophique de l'embryon humain in vitro

Missa, J.-N. (1997). Le statut philosophique de l'embryon humain in vitro: terminologie et approche philosophique. Paper session presented at Premier Colloque du Comité Consultatif de Bioéthique (23 avril 1997: Bruxelles).  

 

Information Infrastructure for Ethics in Medecine

Missa, J.-N. (1997). Information Infrastructure for Ethics in Medecine. Paper session presented at European Workshop on an Improved Information Infrastructure for Ethics in Medecine, Health Care and in Health Professions (21-22 March 1997: Klinikum der Georg-August-Universität Göttingen).  

 

From zombies to Star Trek's commander Data

Cleeremans, A., & Jiménez, L. (1997). From zombies to Star Trek's commander Data: How traditional models of cognition leave no room for the implicit. Paper session presented at first conference of the Association for the Scientific Study of Consciousness: What does Implicit Cognition tell us about Concsciousness (June 13 — 16: Clarement College (USA)).  

 

1996

Les doctrines matérialistes de l'âme face à la théorie cartésienne

Missa, J.-N. (1996). Les doctrines matérialistes de l'âme face à la théorie cartésienne. Paper session presented at XXVIe Congrès de l'Association des Sociétés de Philosophie de Langue Française (2 septembre 1996: Paris, Sorbonne).  

 

The shadow theory of mind

Cleeremans, A. (1996). The shadow theory of mind: How traditional metaphors of cognition leave no room for implicit learning. Paper session presented at 1996 Annual Conference of the British Psychological Society (April 11 — 14: Brighton (UK)).  

 

Implicit cognition with the symbolic metaphor of mind

Cleeremans, A. (1996). Implicit cognition with the symbolic metaphor of mind: How traditional models of cognition leave no room for the implicit. Paper session presented at Invited seminar presented at the Department of Psychology (November 14: University of Glasgow (U.K)).  

 

Implicit cognition with the symbolic metaphor of mind

Cleeremans, A. (1996). Implicit cognition with the symbolic metaphor of mind: How traditional models of cognition leave no room for the implicit. Paper session presented at Invited seminar presented at the Faculté de Psychologie (December 5: Université de Liège (Belgium)).  

 

Métaphores symboliques et connexionistes de l'esprit

Cleeremans, A. (1996). Métaphores symboliques et connexionistes de l'esprit: Implications pour l'apprentissage implicite. Paper session presented at Invited seminar presented at the Laboratoire de Psychologie Sociale de la Cognition (January 16: Université Blaise Pascal à Clermont-Ferrand (France)).  

 

1995

Les systèmes matérialistes des philosophes et des médecins sur l'âme de l'homme

Missa, J.-N. (1995). Les systèmes matérialistes des philosophes et des médecins sur l'âme de l'homme: de La Mettrie aux neuroscientifiques du XXe siècle. Paper session presented at Colloque sur les Matérialistes (2 au 9 septembre 1995: Centre Culturel International de Cerisy).  

 

The beginning and the end of human life: Historical and epistemological study of the concepts of life and death in connection with the mind-brain problem (in the 19th and 20th centuries)

Missa, J.-N. (1995). The beginning and the end of human life: Historical and epistemological study of the concepts of life and death in connection with the mind-brain problem (in the 19th and 20th centuries). Paper session presented at 9th Annual Conference of the European Society for Philosophy of Medicine and Health Care (21-23 septembre 1995: Kos).  

 

Une critique positive du chapitre 2 de Matière et mémoire de Bergson

Missa, J.-N. (1995). Une critique positive du chapitre 2 de Matière et mémoire de Bergson. Paper session presented at Colloque "Bergson et les neurosciences" (4 mai 1995: Université Catholique de Lille, Lille).  

 

Ethique de la psychochirurgie

Missa, J.-N. (1995). Ethique de la psychochirurgie: étude comparative et analyse de la situation en Belgique. Paper session presented at Euroconférence Cerveau et psychisme humains: éthique de la recherche et des thérapeutiques (18 et 19 mai 1995.: Paris).  

 

Ethique de l'expérimentation humaine

Missa, J.-N. (1995). Ethique de l'expérimentation humaine: la régulation des recherches dans le secteur de la chirurgie du cerveau. Paper session presented at Colloque de la laïcité (mars 1995: Bruxelles).  

 

Les niveaux d'intégration de l'action

Missa, J.-N. (1995). Les niveaux d'intégration de l'action: la théorie bergsonienne du "cerveau, organe de l'action à la lumière des théories neuroscientifiques contemporaines. Paper session presented at séminaire interdisciplinaire de DEA "Neurosciences et philosophie": les niveaux d'intégration de l'action" (23 février 1995: Université des Sciences Humaines de Strasbourg).  

 

Principles for Implicit Learning

Cleeremans, A. (1995). Principles for Implicit Learning. Paper session presented at Represenation and Process in Implicit Learning” workshop, Fondation Universitaire (May 22, 1995: Brussels, (Belgium)).  

 

Implicit Learning

Cleeremans, A., & Destrebecqz, A. (1995). Implicit Learning: Neither abstract nor based on exemplars. Paper session presented at Annual Meeting of the Belgian Psychological Society (May 11, 1995: Louvain-La-Neuve (Belgium)).  

 

Beyond the SRN

Cleeremans, A. (1995). Beyond the SRN: Modeling sequence learning with Recurrent Encoder Networks. Paper session presented at Sequence learning and sequencing” workshop, Max Planck Institut für Psychologische Forschung (November 16 — 17: Munich (Germany)).  

 

Cinq principes pour l'apprentissage implicite

Cleeremans, A. (1995). Cinq principes pour l'apprentissage implicite. Paper session presented at Invited conference presented at the Laboratoire Travail et Cognition (November 3: Université Toulouse II (France)).  

 

Abstraction and memory for instances in implicit learning

Cleeremans, A. (1995). Abstraction and memory for instances in implicit learning. Paper session presented at Experimental Psychology Society (April 6 - 7, 1995: Cambridge).  

 

Recherche clinique et recherche expérimentale en neurologie au vingtième siècle

Missa, J.-N. (1995). Recherche clinique et recherche expérimentale en neurologie au vingtième siècle: paradoxes et solutions. Paper session presented at Colloque Les sciences physiologiques entre biologie et médecine (15 et 16 janvier 1995: Centre Européen d'Histoire de la Médecine, Strasbourg).  

 

1994

Brain physical manipulation and individual personality

Missa, J.-N. (1994). Brain physical manipulation and individual personality. Paper session presented at International Multidisciplinary Workshop Ethical aspects on brain research (16 décembre 1994: Rome, Italie).  

 

Libre examen, définitions, bilan et perspectives

Daled, P.-F. (1994). Libre examen, définitions, bilan et perspectives. Paper session presented at Colloque "Libre examen, définitions, bilan et perspectives " (3/12/1994: Université Libre de Bruxelles).  

 

Informed consent in the field of brain surgery

Missa, J.-N. (1994). Informed consent in the field of brain surgery. Paper session presented at First World Congress Medicine and philosophy: Sciences, Technologies, Values (31 mai 1994: Université Paris I Sorbonne, Paris).  

 

L'éthique formelle de H.T. Engelhardt Jr

Missa, J.-N. (1994). L'éthique formelle de H.T. Engelhardt Jr. Paper session presented at First World Congress Medicine and philosophy: Sciences, Technologies, Values (31 mai 1994: Université Paris I Sorbonne, Paris).  

 

L'émergence des sciences cognitives comme discipline de recherche

Missa, J.-N. (1994). L'émergence des sciences cognitives comme discipline de recherche. Paper session presented at Ouverture à l'Interdisciplinarité (29 avril 1994: Paris, CNRS UPR 21, Laboratoire d'Histoire des Sciences et des Techniques).  

 

L'intentionnalité et les fonctions du cortex préfrontal

Missa, J.-N. (1994). L'intentionnalité et les fonctions du cortex préfrontal: considérations historiques et épistémologiques. Paper session presented at Journée d'études : Histoire et épistémologie des sciences de la vie (19 mars 1994: Centre Européen d'Histoire de la médecine, Strasbourg).  

 

Explicit and implicit information in sequence learning

Cleeremans, A. (1994). Explicit and implicit information in sequence learning. Paper session presented at Experimental Psychology Society (July 7 — 8, 1994: Exeter meeting).  

 

Exploring and interpreting dissociations in implicit learning

Cleeremans, A. (1994). Exploring and interpreting dissociations in implicit learning. Paper session presented at Invited seminar presented at the Service de Neuropsychologie (November 9: Université de Liège (Belgium)).  

 

Connectionist networks as models of human sequence learning

Cleeremans, A. (1994). Connectionist networks as models of human sequence learning: An overview. Paper session presented at Invited seminar presented at the Department of Computer Science (July 4: University of Sheffield (UK)).  

 

Being explicit about implicit learning

Cleeremans, A. (1994). Being explicit about implicit learning. Paper session presented at Implicit-Explicit Workshop (March 23: University of Sussex, Brighton (UK)).  

 

Représentations et processus dans l'apprentissage implicite

Cleeremans, A. (1994). Représentations et processus dans l'apprentissage implicite: Les vertus du connexionisme. Paper session presented at Invited seminar presented at the Unité de Psychologie du Travail et des Organisations (April 21: Université Catholique de Louvain (Belgium)).  

 

1993

Le pluralisme éthique à l'hôpital

Missa, J.-N. (1993). Le pluralisme éthique à l'hôpital. Paper session presented at Congrès FIHW L'hôpital aux carrefour des questions éthiques (25-26 mars 1993: Wepion).  

 

Les métaphores de l'Esprit

Cleeremans, A. (1993). Les métaphores de l'Esprit. Paper session presented at Conference presented at the Institut des Hautes Etudes (November 25: ULB (Belgium)).  

 

The psychology of connectionism

Cleeremans, A. (1993). The psychology of connectionism. Paper session presented at Lecture presented at the Institute of Psychology (November 15: University of Aarhus (Denmark)).  

 

Attention and awareness in sequence learning

Cleeremans, A. (1993). Attention and awareness in sequence learning. Paper session presented at Seminar presented at the Department of Psychology (June 22: University of Oregon (USA)).  

 

Attention and awareness in sequence learning

Cleeremans, A. (1993). Attention and awareness in sequence learning. Paper session presented at Seminar presented at the weekly research meeting of the PDP group (April 9: Carnegie Mellon University (USA)).  

 

Attention and awareness in sequence learning

Cleeremans, A. (1993). Attention and awareness in sequence learning. Paper session presented at Colloquium presented at the Department of Psychology, Katholieke Universiteit Brabant (March 25: Tilburg (The Netherlands)).  

 

Attention and explicit knowledge in sequence learning

Cleeremans, A. (1993). Attention and explicit knowledge in sequence learning. Paper session presented at Seminar presented at the Laboratoire de Psychologie Expérimentale (February 25: ULB (Belgium)).  

 

Mechanisms for implicit learning

Cleeremans, A. (1993). Mechanisms for implicit learning. Paper session presented at Seminar presented at the Department of Psychology (February 17: Université de Genève (Switzerland)).  

 

1992

Le cerveau, l'ordinateur et les modèles de la conscience

Missa, J.-N. (1992). Le cerveau, l'ordinateur et les modèles de la conscience. Paper session presented at Colloque Ordre biologique, ordre technologique: interfaces entre le vivant et la technique (26-28 novembre 1992: Université Paul Valery, Montpellier).  

 

Learning disjoint sequential contingencies

Cleeremans, A. (1992). Learning disjoint sequential contingencies: Human performance and connectionist models. Paper session presented at Seminar presented at Université René Descartes (February 14: Paris (France)).  

 

Sequence processing in human and artificial systems

Cleeremans, A. (1992). Sequence processing in human and artificial systems. Paper session presented at Colloquium presented at the Psychologisches Institut (March 25: Universität Bonn (Germany)).  

 

1991

Mechanisms of implicit learning

Cleeremans, A. (1991). Mechanisms of implicit learning: A PDP model of sequence acquisition. Paper session presented at PDP-NLP meeting, University of California (April 9: San Diego (USA)).  

 

1990

Unintentional learning of sequential structure

Cleeremans, A., & McClelland, J. L. (1990). Unintentional learning of sequential structure. Paper session presented at 4th Conference of the European Society for Cognitive Psychology (September 16 — 19: Como (Italy)).  

 

Modeling sequence learning with simple recurrent networks

Cleeremans, A. (1990). Modeling sequence learning with simple recurrent networks. Paper session presented at Connectionist approaches in cognitive science, Brussels (Belgium) (September 11 — 12: Palais des Académies).  

 

Graded State Machines

Cleeremans, A. (1990). Graded State Machines. Paper session presented at Seminar presented at the AI-Lab (July 3: VUB (Belgium)).  

 

1989

Learning sequential structure

Cleeremans, A. (1989). Learning sequential structure. Paper session presented at seventh annual Pitt-CMU conference on Cognition, LRDC (June 16: University of Pittsburgh (USA)).  

 

Implicit learning of sequential structure in a CRT task

Cleeremans, A. (1989). Implicit learning of sequential structure in a CRT task. Paper session presented at Seminar presented at IRIDIA (August 22: ULB (Belgium)).  

 

1988

Learning in simple recurrent networks

Cleeremans, A. (1988). Learning in simple recurrent networks. Paper session presented at Seminar presented at the research meeting of the Boltzmann group, Department of Computer Science (October 5: Carnegie Mellon University (USA)).  

 

Learning in recurrent networks

Cleeremans, A. (1988). Learning in recurrent networks. Paper session presented at Seminar presented at the Laboratoire de Psychologie Industrielle et Commerciale (June 28: ULB (Belgium)).  

 

1987

Modèles connexionnistes et apprentissage implicite

Cleeremans, A. (1987). Modèles connexionnistes et apprentissage implicite. Paper session presented at Seminar presented at IRIDIA (June 2: ULB (Belgium)).  

 

Associations et dissociations entre performance et connaissances verbalisables

Cleeremans, A. (1987). Associations et dissociations entre performance et connaissances verbalisables. Paper session presented at Seminar presented at the weekly research meetings series of the Laboratoire de Psychologie Expérimentale (June 18: ULB (Belgium)).  

 

Direction d'ouvrages: chapitres rédigés par des membres de l'ULB

2015

Préhumains et hominisation.

Groenen, M. (2015). Préhumains et hominisation. In J.-N. Missa, G. Hottois, & L. Perbal (Eds.), L'humain et ses préfixes : une encyclopédie de l'humanisme, du transhumanisme et du posthumanisme (1 ed., pp. 110-117). Paris: Vrin.(Pour demain).  

 

Science-fiction et cinéma

Andrin, M. (2015). Science-fiction et cinéma. In G. Hottois, J.-N. Missa, & L. Perbal (Eds.), L'humain et ses préfixes: Encyclopédie du transhumanisme et du posthumanisme. Paris: Vrin.  
https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/226084/3/Sciencefictionetcinema.pdf

 

Hommes fossiles

Groenen, M. (2015). Hommes fossiles. In J.-N. Missa & G. Hottois (Eds.), L'humain et ses préfixes: une encyclopédie de l'humanisme, du transhumanisme et du posthumanisme. Paris: Vrin.(Pour demain).  

 

2012

Penser l'avenir avec Spinoza

Timmermans, B. R. (2012). Penser l'avenir avec Spinoza. In J.-N. Missa & L. Perbal (Eds.), Les philosophes et le futur (pp. 29-43). Paris: Vrin.  
https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/175978/1/Spinoza.pdf

 

2009

Objective vs. subjective measures of consciousness

Destrebecqz, A. (2009). Objective vs. subjective measures of consciousness. In T. Bayne, A. Cleeremans, & P. Wilken (Eds.), The Oxford Companion to Consciousness (pp. 481-482). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.  

 

Science-fiction et diète de l'imagination philosophique

Hottois, G. (2009). Science-fiction et diète de l'imagination philosophique. In L. Perbal & J.-N. Missa (Eds.), Enhancement: Ethique et philosophie de la médecine d'amélioration. Vrin.  

 

2001

Double effet = Double Effect

Decharneux, B. (2001). Double effet = Double Effect. In G. Hottois & J.-N. Missa (Eds.), Nouvelle encyclopédie de la bioéthique: médecine, environnement, biotechnologie (1 ed., pp. 297-300). Bruxelles: De Boeck Université.  

 

Écoterrorisme

Chabot, P. (2001). Écoterrorisme: Ecoterrorism. In G. Hottois, J.-N. Missa, M.-G. Pinsart, & P. Chabot (Eds.), Nouvelle Encyclopédie de bioéthique: médecine, environnement, technologie (pp. 354-358). Bruxelles: De Boeck Université.  

 

Démographie

Grimmeau, J. P. (2001). Démographie. In G. Hottois & J.-N. Missa (Eds.), Nouvelle encyclopédie de bioéthique (pp. 259-261). louvain-la-Neuve: De Boeck Université.  

 

2000

Et si l'opinion avait parfois raison ?

Stengers, I. (2000). Et si l'opinion avait parfois raison ? In E. Zaccai & J.-N. Missa (Eds.), Le principe de précaution. Significations et conséquences (pp. 195-201).(Editions de l'Université de Bruxelles).  

 

Introduction

Zaccai, E. (2000). Introduction. In E. Zaccai & J.-N. Missa (Eds.), Le principe de précaution: Significations et conséquences (pp. 7-18). Bruxelles: Editions de l'Université de Bruxelles.(Aménagement du territoire et environnement, 1).  
https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/74785/1/i9782800412467_000_o.pdf

 

1999

Eugénisme et don de gamète

Englert, Y. (1999). Eugénisme et don de gamète. In J.-N. Missa & S. Charles (Eds.), De l'Eugénisme d'Etat à l'eugénisme privé, 63-68. Bruxelles: De Boeck Université.  

 

Aux frontières de l'eugénisme

Hottois, G. (1999). Aux frontières de l'eugénisme. In J.-N. Missa & C. Susanne (Eds.), De l'eugénisme d'Etat à l'eugénisme privé. Bruxelles: De Boeck Université.(Sciences Ethiques Société).  

 

1996

Les problèmes bioéthiques posés par l'investigation clinique chez les patients de soins intensifs

Vincent, J. L. (1996). Les problèmes bioéthiques posés par l'investigation clinique chez les patients de soins intensifs. In J.-N. Missa (Ed.), Le devoir d'expérimenter (pp. 57-66). Paris, Bruxelles: De Boeck Université.  

 

L'expérimentation en reproduction humaine

Englert, Y. (1996). L'expérimentation en reproduction humaine. In J.-N. Missa (Ed.), Le devoir d'expérimenter (pp. 29-41). Bruxelles: De Boeck Université.  

 

Les controverses de l'expérimentation animale

Susanne, C. (1996). Les controverses de l'expérimentation animale. In J.-N. Missa (Ed.), Le devoir d'expérimenter: Etudes philosophiques, éthiques et juridiques sur la recherche biomédicale (pp. 97-128). De Boeck Universités.  

 

1991

Et si demain le cerveau ?

Stengers, I. (1991). Et si demain le cerveau ? In J.-N. Missa (Ed.), Philosophie de l'esprit et sciences du cerveau (pp. 147-161). Paris: Vrin.(Annales de l'Institut de Philosophie de L'Université de Bruxelles).  

 

Direction d'actes de colloque: chapitres rédigés par des membres de l'ULB

1997

Do superior groups discriminate more?

Klein, O., & Azzi, A. E. (1997). Do superior groups discriminate more?: Differentiating social identity from equity concerns. In A. Cleeremans, R. Kolinsky, & P. Mousty (Eds.), Proceedings of the 50th Anniversary Meeting of the Belgian Psychological Society (p. 26) Bruxelles: Société Belge de Psychologie.  
https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/31354/1/ok-0048.rtf

 

1991

L'analyse de la cognition par la psychologie cognitive

Kolinsky, R., & Morais, J. (1991). L'analyse de la cognition par la psychologie cognitive. In J.-N. Missa (Ed.), Philosophie de l'esprit et sciences du cerveau (pp. 105-122). (Annales de l'Institut de philosophie de l'Université de Bruxelles). Paris: Vrin.  
https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/150024/6/d2045aaf-1657-48e2-9dec-539b3f62c73f.txt

 


 

Mis à jour le 3 mai 2024